Parkinson’s disease: Mechanisms, translational models and management strategies.

Parkinson’s disease: Mechanisms, translational models and management strategies.

Publication date: Apr 10, 2019

Parkinson’s disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. The classical motor symptoms include resting tremors, bradykinesia, rigidity and postural instability and are accompanied by the loss of dopaminergic neurons and Lewy pathology. Diminished neurotransmitter level, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and perturbed protein homeostasis over time worsen the disease manifestations in elderly people. Current management strategies aim to provide symptomatic relief and to slow down the disease progression. However, no pharmacological breakthrough has been made to protect dopaminergic neurons and associated motor circuitry components. Deep brain stimulation, stem cells-derived dopaminergic neurons transplantation, gene editing and gene transfer remain promising approaches for the potential management of neurodegenerative disease. Toxin or genetically induced rodent models replicating Parkinson’s disease pathology are of high predictive value for translational research. This review addresses the current understanding, management strategies and the Parkinson’s disease models for translational research. Preclinical research may provide powerful tools to quest the potential therapeutic and neuroprotective compounds for dopaminergic neurons and hence possible cure for the Parkinson’s disease.

Raza, C., Anjum, R., and Shakeel, N.U.A. Parkinson’s disease: Mechanisms, translational models and management strategies. 20451. 2019 Life Sci.

Concepts Keywords
Bradykinesia Stem cells
Deep Brain Stimulation Transplantation
Dopaminergic Substantia nigra
Homeostasis Dopaminergic cell groups
Mitochondrial Neuron
Neurodegenerative Disease Neurodegeneration
Neurodegenerative Disorder Midbrain
Neurons Neuroscience
Neuroprotective Basal ganglia
Neurotransmitter Dopamine
Oxidative Stress Neurological disorders
Parkinson Organ systems
Pathology Brain
Pharmacological Branches of biology
Postural Instability Deep brain stimulation
Progressive Neurodegenerative disorder
Rodent Tremors bradykinesia
Sci Potential management
Stem Cells


Type Source Name
disease DOID neurodegenerative disease
disease MESH disease progression
pathway BSID Oxidative Stress
disease MESH oxidative stress
disease MESH bradykinesia
disease MESH resting tremors
disease MESH neurodegenerative disorder


Original Article

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