Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative diseases.

Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative diseases.

Publication date: May 08, 2019

Microglia, being the resident immune cells of the central nervous system, play an important role in maintaining tissue homeostasis and contributes towards brain development under normal conditions. However, when there is a neuronal injury or other insult, depending on the type and magnitude of stimuli, microglia will be activated to secrete either proinflammatory factors that enhance cytotoxicity or anti-inflammatory neuroprotective factors that assist in wound healing and tissue repair. Excessive microglial activation damages the surrounding healthy neural tissue, and the factors secreted by the dead or dying neurons in turn exacerbate the chronic activation of microglia, causing progressive loss of neurons. It is the case observed in many neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. This review gives a detailed account of the microglia-mediated neuroinflammation in various neurodegenerative diseases. Hence, resolving chronic inflammation mediated by microglia bears great promise as a novel treatment strategy to reduce neuronal damage and to foster a permissive environment for further regeneration effort.

Subhramanyam, C.S., Wang, C., Hu, Q., and Dheen, S.T. Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative diseases. 06482. 2019 Semin Cell Dev Biol.

Concepts Keywords
Alzheimer Neuroprotection
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Nervous tissue
Brain Microglia
Central Nervous System Neurology
Cytotoxicity Nervous system
Homeostasis Neuroinflammation
Huntington Organ systems
Inflammation Branches of biology
Magnitude Glial cells
Microglia Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Neural Tissue Chronic inflammation
Neurodegenerative Diseases Chronic activation microglia
Neurons However neuronal injury
Neuroprotective
Parkinson
Progressive
Wound Healing

Semantics

Type Source Name
gene UNIPROT RXFP2
gene UNIPROT MAGEE1
disease MESH inflammation
disease DOID amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
disease MESH amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
pathway BSID Neurodegenerative Diseases
disease MESH neurodegenerative diseases

Original Article

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