Uveal melanoma: physiopathology and new in situ-specific therapies.

Uveal melanoma: physiopathology and new in situ-specific therapies.

Publication date: May 11, 2019

Uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular tumor in adults. It can arise from melanocytes in the anterior (iris) or posterior uveal tract (choroid and ciliary body). Uveal melanoma has a particular molecular pathogenesis, being characterized by specific chromosome alterations and gene mutations (e.g., GNAQ/GNA11; BAP1), which are considered promising targets for molecular therapy. Primary treatment of uveal melanoma includes radiotherapy (brachytherapy and charged-particle therapy), phototherapy (photocoagulation, transpupillary thermal therapy, and photodynamic therapy) and surgery (local resection, enucleation and exenteration). Approximately half of patients with uveal melanoma will, however, develop metastasis, especially in the liver. The treatment of metastatic uveal melanoma includes systemic chemotherapy, immunotherapy and molecular targeted therapy. Liver-directed therapies, such as resection, chemoembolization, immunoembolization, radioembolization, isolated hepatic perfusion and percutaneous hepatic perfusion, are also available to treat metastatic uveal melanoma. Several clinical trials are being developed to study new therapeutic options to treat uveal melanoma, mainly for those with identified liver metastases. The present work discusses the physiopathology and new in situ-specific therapies for the treatment of uveal melanoma.

Souto, E.B., Zielinska, A., Luis, M., Carbone, C., Martins-Gomes, C., Souto, S.B., and Silva, A.M. Uveal melanoma: physiopathology and new in situ-specific therapies. 22594. 2019 Cancer Chemother Pharmacol.

Concepts Keywords
Brachytherapy Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy DecisionDx-UM
Choroid Targeted therapy
Chromosome BAP1
Ciliary Body Eye neoplasm
Clinical Trials Uveal melanoma
Enucleation Clinical medicine
Hepatic Melanoma
Immunotherapy Branches of biology
Iris Medicine
Liver Phototherapy
Melanocytes Molecular therapy
Metastases Radiotherapy
Metastasis Chemotherapy
Metastatic Photodynamic therapy surgery
Molecular Therapy Immunotherapy
Pathogenesis Brachytherapy
Perfusion Photodynamic therapy
Photocoagulation Liver metastases
Photodynamic Therapy Uveal melanoma
Phototherapy
Physiopathology
Radiotherapy
Resection
Targeted Therapy
Tumor
Uveal Melanoma

Semantics

Type Source Name
disease MESH metastasis
gene UNIPROT BAP1
gene UNIPROT MAGI1
gene UNIPROT RNF2
gene UNIPROT GNA11
gene UNIPROT GNAQ
gene UNIPROT BRCA1
disease MESH tumor
disease DOID Uveal melanoma
disease MESH Uveal melanoma

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