Publication date: May 13, 2019
microRNAs (miRNAs) are a novel class of single-stranded RNAs with a key role in the regulation of gene expression. miRNA main mechanism of action involves interaction with the mRNA transcribed from the genes, leading to the target mRNA silencing and degradation. Indeed, it is easy to conceive that a defective miRNA-based mRNA regulation may compromise normal cell function and cause genetic diseases. A wide spectrum of studies has focused on the identification and introduction of regulatory diseases-specific miRNAs for the past decade. Overexpression or downregulation of several miRNAs can potentially stimulate or inhibit pathways related to the pathogenesis of celiac disease (CD). CD is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by small intestinal mucosal injury and nutrient malabsorption in genetically susceptible individuals after the dietary ingestion of gluten. The disease is characterized by villous atrophy, intraepithelial lymphocyte infiltration, and chronic inflammation and activation of lamina propria T cells. The common genetic background in CD is the presence of heterodimeric human leukocyte antigen class II molecules DQ2 or DQ8 that account for ∼40% of the genetic predisposition in this disease. In fact, by minute identification of these miRNAs and related targets and mechanisms, specific therapeutics can be developed to suppress these pathophysiological pathways through the enhancement or inhibition of miRNAs. This development can open a new prospect for personalized medicine.
Chamani, E., Sargolzaei, J., Tavakoli, T., and Rezaei, Z. microRNAs: Novel Markers in Diagnostics and Therapeutics of Celiac Disease. 04592. 2019 DNA Cell Biol.