Publication date: May 15, 2019
While cross-sectional associations of inflammatory markers interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein with major depressive disorder are well established, evidence for longitudinal associations mostly comes from studies on depression symptoms, not diagnoses. This study examined cross-sectional and bidirectional longitudinal associations between depression diagnosis and symptoms in an adult sample over a 6-year period.
Data were obtained from the baseline (n = 2416) and 2- and 6-year follow-up assessments (n = 1925 and n = 1924, respectively) of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. C-reactive protein and IL-6 were assessed at each wave, as were the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology. Linear mixed models and generalized estimating equation models with a binomial distribution were used to study longitudinal associations between depression and inflammation and vice versa.
There was a consistent cross-sectional association between current depressive disorder (vs. no current disorder) and symptoms with IL-6 across all follow-up measurements (Cohen’s d = 0.06, p = .017; B = 0.029, SE = 0.011, p = .008). In longitudinal analyses, higher IL-6 levels predicted subsequent chronic course in those with a diagnosis at baseline in women but not in men (odds ratio = 1.13, 95% confidence interval = 1.04-1.23), and both depressive disorder and high severity predicted higher IL-6 levels at the subsequent follow-up (p values
In this longitudinal study, cross-sectional and bidirectional longitudinal associations were found between depression and IL-6 levels. This underlines the importance of targeting inflammation pathways in the treatment of major depressive disorder. IL-6 could be a potential marker for patient profiling in personalized medicine approaches.
Lamers, F., Milaneschi, Y., Smit, J.H., Schoevers, R.A., Wittenberg, G., and Penninx, B.W.J.H. Longitudinal Association Between Depression and Inflammatory Markers: Results From the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. 04594. 2019 Biol Psychiatry (85):10.
|disease||DOID||major depressive disorder|
|disease||MESH||major depressive disorder|