An Update on Adoptive T-Cell Therapy and Neoantigen Vaccines.

An Update on Adoptive T-Cell Therapy and Neoantigen Vaccines.

Publication date: Jan 01, 2019

Adoptive T-cell therapy using tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) has demonstrated long-lasting antitumor activity in select patients with advanced melanoma. Cancer vaccines have been used for many decades and have shown some promise but overall relatively modest clinical activity across cancers. Technological advances in genome sequencing capabilities and T-cell engineering have had substantial impact on both adoptive cell therapy and the cancer vaccine field. The ability to identify neoantigens-a class of tumor antigens that is truly tumor specific and encoded by tumor mutations through rapid and relatively inexpensive next-generation sequencing-has already demonstrated the critical importance of these antigens as targets of antitumor-specific T-cell responses in the context of immune checkpoint blockade and other immunotherapies. Therapeutically targeting these antigens with either adoptive T-cell therapy or vaccine approaches has demonstrated early promise in the clinic in patients with advanced solid tumors. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells, which are engineered by fusing an antigen-specific, single-chain antibody (scFv) with signaling molecules of the T-cell receptor (TCR)/CD3 complex creating an antibody-like structure on T cells that recognizes antigens independently of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules, have demonstrated remarkable clinical activity in patients with advanced B-cell malignancies, leading to several approvals by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Ott, P.A., Dotti, G., Yee, C., and Goff, S.L. An Update on Adoptive T-Cell Therapy and Neoantigen Vaccines. 22692. 2019 Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book (39):

Concepts Keywords
Antibody Cell Therapy
Antigen Tumor antigen
Antigens Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes
B Cell Immunotherapy
CD3 Cancer treatments
Chimeric Antigen Receptor Immunology
Engineering Oncology
FDA Immune system
Genome Clinical medicine
Immune Checkpoint Blockade Medical specialties
Immunotherapies Medicine
Lymphocytes Immunotherapies
Major Histocompatibility Complex Cell therapy
Malignancies Select advanced melanoma
Melanoma Tumor
MHC
Sequencing
T Cell
T Cell Receptor
Tumor
Tumor Antigens
Vaccine

Semantics

Type Source Name
gene UNIPROT HLA-C
gene UNIPROT TRIM13
gene UNIPROT CXADR
gene UNIPROT CASR
gene UNIPROT NR1I3
gene UNIPROT PRKAR1A
gene UNIPROT SPG7
gene UNIPROT IMPACT
disease DOID Cancer
pathway BSID Melanoma
disease DOID melanoma
disease MESH melanoma
disease MESH tumor

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