Publication date: Jun 05, 2019
α-Synuclein (αSyn) is central to the neuropathology of Parkinson’s disease (PD) due to its propensity for misfolding and aggregation into neurotoxic oligomers. Nitration/oxidation of αSyn leads to dityrosine crosslinking and aggregation. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is an oxidant-generating enzyme implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. In the present work we have examined the impact of MPO in PD through analysis of postmortem PD brain and in a novel animal model in which we crossed a transgenic mouse expressing the human MPO (hMPO) gene to a mouse expressing human αSyn -A53T mutant (A53T) (hMPO-A53T). Surprisingly, our results show that in PD substantia nigra, the hMPO gene is expressed in neurons containing aggregates of nitrated αSyn as well as MPO-specific HOCl-modified epitopes. In our hMPO-A53T mouse model, we also saw hMPO expression in neurons but not mouse MPO. In the mouse model, hMPO was expressed in neurons colocalizing with nitrated αSyn, carbamylated lysine, nitrotyrosine, as well as HOCl-modified epitopes/proteins. RNAscope in situ hybridization confirmed hMPO mRNA expression in neurons. Interestingly, the hMPO protein expressed in hMPO-A53T brain is primarily the precursor proMPO, which enters the secretory pathway potentially resulting in interneuronal transmission of MPO and oxidative species. Importantly, the hMPO-A53T mouse model, when compared to the A53T model, exhibited significant exacerbation of motor impairment on rotating rods, balance beams, and wire hang tests. Further, hMPO expression in the A53T model resulted in earlier onset of end stage paralysis. Interestingly, there was a high concentration of αSyn aggregates in the stratum lacunosum moleculare of hippocampal CA2 region, which has been associated in humans with accumulation of αSyn pathology and neural atrophy in dementia with Lewy bodies. This accumulation of αSyn aggregates in CA2 was associated with markers of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response with expression of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), MPO, and cleaved caspase-3. Together these findings suggest that MPO plays an important role in nitrative and oxidative damage that contributes to αSyn pathology in synucleinopathies.
|disease||DOID||dementia with Lewy bodies|
- The Roles of Post-translational Modifications on α-Synuclein in the Pathogenesis of Parkinson’s Diseases.