Publication date: Jun 08, 2019
Objective: To provide a broad overview of the state of drug misuse research, particularly focusing on opioid drug use in the U.S.A. Design: An overview of published reviews of the literature. Results: Prescription opioid use has increased globally from 2008 to 2013, while use of opiates such as heroin and opium have remained stable in many countries, although, decreases have been observed in parts of Europe. Opioid misuse is highest in the United States; approximately 11.8 million Americans misused opioids in 2016. Demographic, genetic, psychosocial and structural/environmental factors all play a role in determining who will become an opioid misuser. Strategies such as increased prescribing of non-opioid derived pain relievers, expansion of medication treatment, distribution of naloxone for overdose reversal and supervised consumption sites are some of the solutions posed to reduce the spread and consequences of opioid misuse. Conclusion: Research focused on understanding of opioid neurobiology, as well as empirically based, effective alternatives to pain management and implementation studies on combined prevention and treatment approaches are needed. It will take the combined effort of community members, healthcare professionals, policymakers and researchers in order to prevent and treat opioid misuse.
Bolshakova, M., Bluthenthal, R., and Sussman, S. Opioid use and misuse: health impact, prevalence, correlates and interventions. 03635. 2019 Psychol Health.
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