Stem Cell Therapy Based on Exosomes May Treat MS, Study in Mice Suggests

Stem Cell Therapy Based on Exosomes May Treat MS, Study in Mice Suggests

Publication date: Jun 10, 2019

Exosomes – tiny vesicles secreted by cells – collected from bone marrow stem cells and injected into a mouse model of multiple sclerosis (MS) helped to treat the disease, a study reports. Looking to develop a cell-free approach, a team led by University of California, Irvine researchers collected exosomes from human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), or adult stem cells found in multiple tissues, such as the umbilical cord, bone marrow and fat. Treated mice showed lesser demyelination, or loss of the insulating layer of nerve fibers (myelin), that is characteristic of MS. Less neuroinflammation also was seen in the treated mice, evidenced by fewer damaging immune cells like macrophages and microglia, and fewer proinflammatory T-cells, infiltrating the animals’ spinal cord. Subsequent in vitro or lab experiments showed the exosomes slowed the proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells – which include immune B-cells, T-cells, monocytes, and macrophages – and lowered levels of proinflammatory molecules released by Th cells 1 and 17, including interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-2, the researchers said. -These results not only shed light on stem cell therapeutic mechanisms,” the study concluded, -but also provide evidence that MSC-derived exosomes can potentially serve as cell-free therapies in creating a tolerogenic [innate] immune response to treat autoimmune and central nervous system disorders. “

Concepts Keywords
Autoimmune Autoimmunity
Autoimmune Diseases Regulatory T cell
B Cells Neuroinflammation
Blood Bone marrow
Bone Marrow Myelitis
California Biotechnology
Central Nervous System Exosome
Control Group Stem cells
Demyelination Vesicles
Diabetes Medical specialties
Exosomes Branches of biology
Fat Autoimmune diseases
Galectin Peak disease
Heat Shock Multiple sclerosis
HSP70 Autoimmune neurodegenerative diseases
Immunosuppressive MS
Interferon Gamma Lesser demyelination loss
Interleukin Heat shock HSP70
Irvine
Macrophages
Mesenchymal
MIC
Mice
Microglia
Molecule
Monocytes
Multiple Sclerosis
Myelin
Nerve
Neurodegenerative Diseases
Neuroprotective
Peak
Pharmacological
Pilot Experiment
Regulatory T Cells
Spinal Cord
T Cells
Tregs
Umbilical Cord
Vesicles

Semantics

Type Source Name
disease MESH multiple
drug DRUGBANK Mesenchymal Stem Cells
gene UNIPROT SMIM10L2A
gene UNIPROT SMIM10L2B
gene UNIPROT ACSS2
gene UNIPROT ACCS
gene UNIPROT PLA2G15
disease MESH autoimmune diseases
pathway BSID Release
disease MESH type 1 diabetes
pathway BSID Neurodegenerative Diseases
disease MESH neurodegenerative diseases
disease DOID multiple sclerosis
disease MESH multiple sclerosis
drug DRUGBANK Palmitic Acid
gene UNIPROT FAT1
gene UNIPROT CD36
disease MESH experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
disease MESH demyelination
gene UNIPROT EGR3
gene UNIPROT LAT2
gene UNIPROT IL2
gene UNIPROT IDO1
gene UNIPROT GDF15
gene UNIPROT RMC1
disease MESH shock
gene UNIPROT HSPA4
gene UNIPROT TNFSF14
gene UNIPROT MSC
gene UNIPROT SLC25A37
disease MESH central nervous system disorders

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