Opioid Addiction, Genetic Susceptibility, and Medical Treatments: A Review.

Opioid Addiction, Genetic Susceptibility, and Medical Treatments: A Review.

Publication date: Sep 02, 2019

Opioid addiction is a chronic and complex disease characterized by relapse and remission. In the past decade, the opioid epidemic or opioid crisis in the United States has raised public awareness. Methadone, buprenorphine, and naloxone have proven their effectiveness in treating addicted individuals, and each of them has different effects on different opioid receptors. Classic and molecular genetic research has provided valuable information and revealed the possible mechanism of individual differences in vulnerability for opioid addiction. The polygenic risk score based on the results of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) may be a promising tool to evaluate the association between phenotypes and genetic markers across the entire genome. A novel gene editing approach, clustered, regularly-interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), has been widely used in basic research and potentially applied to human therapeutics such as mental illness; many applications against addiction based on CRISPR are currently under research, and some are successful in animal studies. In this article, we summarized the biological mechanisms of opioid addiction and medical treatments, and we reviewed articles about the genetics of opioid addiction, the promising approach to predict the risk of opioid addiction, and a novel gene editing approach. Further research on medical treatments based on individual vulnerability is needed.

Open Access PDF

Wang, S.C., Chen, Y.C., Lee, C.H., and Cheng, C.M. Opioid Addiction, Genetic Susceptibility, and Medical Treatments: A Review. 03984. 2019 Int J Mol Sci (20):17.

Concepts Keywords
Addiction Buprenorphine
Buprenorphine Addiction
CRISPR Methadone
Genetic Opioid use disorder
Genome Drug rehabilitation
Mental Illness Ketones
Methadone Euphoriants
Molecular Genetic Morphinans
Naloxone RTT
Opioid Drugs
Opioid Addiction Opioids
Opioid Epidemic
Palindromic
Phenotypes
Polygenic
Receptors
Relapse
Remission
Sci

Semantics

Type Source Name
disease MESH death
gene UNIPROT PLXNA3
gene UNIPROT MAGEE1
gene UNIPROT ENG
gene UNIPROT ACSS2
gene UNIPROT PLA2G15
disease DOID bipolar disorder
disease MESH bipolar disorder
disease DOID major depressive disorder
disease MESH major depressive disorder
drug DRUGBANK Citalopram
gene UNIPROT DRD4
disease MESH risk factors
disease DOID heroin dependence
gene UNIPROT SLC6A3
drug DRUGBANK Potassium
drug DRUGBANK Calcium
disease DOID alcohol abuse
gene UNIPROT CCAR1
gene UNIPROT MENT
drug DRUGBANK Trestolone
disease MESH sequels
disease DOID nicotine dependence
disease MESH nicotine dependence
drug DRUGBANK Diflunisal
gene UNIPROT ALDH2
drug DRUGBANK Caffeine
gene UNIPROT AHR
drug DRUGBANK Iron
drug DRUGBANK Fentanyl
drug DRUGBANK Tramadol
drug DRUGBANK Oxycodone
pathway BSID Release
gene UNIPROT EGR3
gene UNIPROT ZBTB8OS
drug DRUGBANK Morphine
gene UNIPROT MAX
drug DRUGBANK Gold
drug DRUGBANK Corticotropin
disease DOID Wee
disease MESH syndromes
gene UNIPROT PROC
drug DRUGBANK Amphetamine
drug DRUGBANK Serine
gene UNIPROT SLC35G1
gene UNIPROT DESI1
disease DOID Korsakoff syndrome
disease MESH Korsakoff syndrome
disease MESH vitamin deficiency
gene UNIPROT EXOG
disease MESH chronic pain
disease DOID Opioid abuse
disease DOID Analgesia
gene UNIPROT MBNL1
disease MESH men
gene UNIPROT FRY
gene UNIPROT DES
drug DRUGBANK Diethylstilbestrol
gene UNIPROT SCN8A
disease MESH community
gene UNIPROT UBXN11
disease MESH drug users
drug DRUGBANK Vorinostat
disease MESH chronic illness
disease DOID Drug dependence
disease MESH Mental Disorders
pathway BSID Neurodegenerative Diseases
disease MESH suffering
disease MESH defects
gene UNIPROT DNMT1
gene UNIPROT CD69
disease MESH employment
gene UNIPROT TP53
gene UNIPROT GABRA2
drug DRUGBANK gamma-Aminobutyric acid
pathway BSID Cocaine addiction
disease MESH Cocaine addiction
disease MESH brain disorders
disease DOID obesity
disease MESH obesity
gene UNIPROT GHSR
gene UNIPROT GH1
drug DRUGBANK Somatotropin
drug DRUGBANK Lenomorelin
gene UNIPROT DRD2
pathway BSID Dopamine receptors
gene UNIPROT PAM
gene UNIPROT MYCBP2
gene UNIPROT CTNND1
gene UNIPROT CSE1L
gene UNIPROT BCAR1
gene UNIPROT BPIFA4P
disease MESH cancers
disease MESH neurodegenerative disorders
disease MESH infections
pathway BSID Rheumatoid arthritis
disease DOID rheumatoid arthritis
disease MESH rheumatoid arthritis
disease DOID multiple sclerosis
disease MESH multiple sclerosis
disease DOID schizophrenia
disease MESH schizophrenia
drug DRUGBANK Serotonin
drug DRUGBANK L-Tryptophan
disease MESH Tryptophan
disease DOID opiate dependence
drug DRUGBANK Dopamine
disease MESH heroin addiction
pathway BSID Stress response
disease MESH impulsivity
disease DOID substance dependence
gene UNIPROT RHO
gene UNIPROT ARHGAP28
gene UNIPROT EAF2
drug DRUGBANK Cocaine
drug DRUGBANK Medical Cannabis
disease MESH genetic disorders
disease MESH depressive symptoms
disease MESH addictive behaviors
disease MESH anhedonia
disease MESH social rejection
gene UNIPROT OPRM1
disease MESH drug seeking behavior
gene UNIPROT TP53INP2
drug DRUGBANK Diamorphine
drug DRUGBANK Naltrexone
gene UNIPROT ACHE
disease DOID AIDS
disease MESH AIDS
disease MESH growth
pathway BSID Alcoholism
disease MESH alcoholism
disease DOID alcoholism
drug DRUGBANK Ethanol
disease MESH withdrawal symptoms
drug DRUGBANK Coenzyme M
disease MESH genetic markers
drug DRUGBANK Naloxone
drug DRUGBANK Buprenorphine
gene UNIPROT EHD1
drug DRUGBANK Methadone
disease MESH relapse
disease MESH Opioid Addiction
disease MESH respiratory depression
gene UNIPROT MAP6
disease MESH cognitive impairment
disease DOID substance abuse
disease MESH substance abuse
gene UNIPROT CHAMP1
gene UNIPROT CAMP
drug DRUGBANK Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate
disease MESH sweating
disease DOID anxiety
disease MESH abdominal cramps
disease MESH anxiety
disease DOID diarrhea
disease MESH yawning

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