Association of Prior Antibiotic Treatment With Survival and Response to Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy in Patients With Cancer.

Association of Prior Antibiotic Treatment With Survival and Response to Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy in Patients With Cancer.

Publication date: Sep 12, 2019

Gut dysbiosis impairs response to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) and can be caused by broad-spectrum antibiotic (ATB) therapy.

To evaluate whether there is an association between ATB therapy administered concurrently (cATB) or prior (pATB) to ICI therapy and overall survival (OS) and treatment response to ICI therapy in patients with cancer treated with ICIs in routine clinical practice.

This prospective, multicenter, cohort study conducted at 2 tertiary academic referral centers recruited 196 patients with cancer who received ICI therapy between January 1, 2015, and April 1, 2018, in routine clinical practice rather than clinical trials.

Overall survival calculated from the time of ICI therapy commencement and radiologic response to ICI treatment defined using the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (version 1.1), with disease refractory to ICI therapy defined as progressive disease 6 to 8 weeks after the first ICI dose without evidence of pseudoprogression.

Among 196 patients (137 men and 59 women; median [range] age, 68 [27-93] years) with non-small cell lung cancer (n = 119), melanoma (n = 38), and other tumor types (n = 39), pATB therapy (HR, 7.4; 95% CI, 4.3-12.8; P 

Pinato, D.J., Howlett, S., Ottaviani, D., Urus, H., Patel, A., Mineo, T., Brock, C., Power, D., Hatcher, O., Falconer, A., Ingle, M., Brown, A., Gujral, D., Partridge, S., Sarwar, N., Gonzalez, M., Bendle, M., Lewanski, C., Newsom-Davis, T., Allara, E., and Bower, M. Association of Prior Antibiotic Treatment With Survival and Response to Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy in Patients With Cancer. 24090. 2019 JAMA Oncol.

Concepts Keywords
Antibiotic Cancer
ATB Criteria Solid Tumors
Broad Spectrum Antibiotic Melanoma
CATB Health sciences
Clinical Trials Medicine
Cohort Cancer treatments
ICI Checkpoint inhibitor
JAMA Immune system
Lung Therapy
Melanoma Survival rate
Progressive
Refractory
Tumor

Semantics

Type Source Name
pathway BSID Melanoma
disease DOID melanoma
disease MESH melanoma
pathway BSID Non-small cell lung cancer
disease DOID non-small cell lung cancer
disease MESH non-small cell lung cancer
disease MESH men
gene UNIPROT TNFSF13
gene UNIPROT ANP32B
disease MESH dysbiosis
disease DOID Cancer
disease MESH Cancer

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