Healthy organelles, healthy cells

Healthy organelles, healthy cells

Publication date: Sep 27, 2019

Although important cellular processes in plants and animals were known to take place in organelles (larger structures enclosed by a membrane, such as the nucleus or mitochondria), it is only in the past few years that scientists have discovered that there is another type of structure playing a critical role in the organisation of cellular processes: membraneless organelles.

“Researchers are discovering a growing number of biological processes that take place in these organelles, separated from the rest of the cell’s content,” says Karsten Weis, Professor of Biochemistry at ETH Zurich.

The ATPases condense into large clusters, leading to a phase separation similar to that of oil in water-and membraneless cell organelles form.

Further experiments with DEAD-box ATPases from human and bacterial cells indicated to the researchers that this process works in a very similar way in all types of organisms.

Organelles create order Moreover, the ATPases not only ensure the self-organised formation of organelles, but also use ATP-dependent binding of RNA to regulate the transport of RNA molecules and proteins into these structures, where the RNA molecules are collected.

In living cells, the ETH researchers have even observed how RNA is transported through several different membraneless organelles.

“This suggests that further processing of the RNA molecules takes place step by step in different organelles,” says Weis.

The findings of his research group now suggest that DEAD-box ATPases help to keep the organelles in a fluid state-thereby preventing the formation of dangerous aggregates.

Concepts Keywords
Adenosine Triphosphate Energy
ALS Neurodegenerative diseases
Alzheimer ALS
Amino Acids Branches of biology
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Cell biology
ATPase Organelles
Biochemistry Cellular compartment
Energy Storage ATPase
ETH Zurich Biological membrane
Fair Dealing Biomolecular condensate
Fluid Cell nucleus
Genetic Engineering Mitochondrion
Huntington Draft:Membraneless organelles
Medicine Genetic engineering
Membrane
Mitochondria
Molecule
Nature
Neurodegenerative Diseases
Nucleus
Oil
Organelle
Organelles
Organism
Protein
RNA
Special Function
Test Tube
Yeast

Semantics

Type Source Name
gene UNIPROT PTPN5
gene UNIPROT LARGE1
gene UNIPROT TUBE1
drug DRUGBANK Amino acids
gene UNIPROT KIDINS220
drug DRUGBANK ATP
gene UNIPROT REST
disease MESH amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
pathway BSID Neurodegenerative Diseases
disease MESH neurodegenerative diseases
disease MESH development
gene UNIPROT RXFP2
drug DRUGBANK Water
disease MESH separation
gene UNIPROT EHD1
gene UNIPROT IGFALS
disease DOID ALS
drug DRUGBANK Ethionamide

Similar

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *