Publication date: Oct 03, 2019
Gambogic acid (GA) is a potential anti-cancer compound that is extracted from the resin of Garciania hanburyi. The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-metastatic effect of GA on melanoma cell lines in vitro and to explore the underlying mechanism. The anti-proliferative activity of GA on melanoma cells was assessed by CCK-8 assay. The Wound-healing, transwell, adhesion, and tube formation assays were performed to examine the inhibition of GA on the cell’s migration, invasion, adhesion, and angiogenesis capacities, respectively. Enzymatic activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were detected by gelatin zymography assay. Protein expressions regulated by GA treatment were tested by Western blot assay. The present results showed that GA significantly inhibited the proliferation of highly metastatic melanoma A375, B16-F10 cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in time- and doses-dependent manners. Furthermore, GA significantly inhibited the migratory, invasive and adhesive properties of A375 and B16-F10 cells, and tube-forming potential of HUVECs at sub-IC concentrations, where no significant cytotoxicity was observed. Mechanistically, GA treatment suppressed the EMT and angiogenesis processes and reduced the enzymatic activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9. Moreover, abnormal PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling pathways in A375 and B16-F10 cells and HUVECs were notably suppressed by GA treatment. Collectively, our results suggest that GA exerts anti-metastasis activity in melanoma cells by suppressing the EMT and angiogenesis through the PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling pathways, and might be used as a phytomedicine against metastatic melanoma.
Li, C.Y., Wang, Q., Wang, X.M., Li, G.X., Shen, S., and Wei, X.L. Gambogic acid exhibits anti-metastatic activity on malignant melanoma mainly through inhibition of PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling pathways. 24376. 2019 Eur J Pharmacol.