Immune cell modulation of oligodendrocyte lineage cell.

Immune cell modulation of oligodendrocyte lineage cell.

Publication date: Nov 03, 2019

Chronic demyelination and the concomitant loss of trophic support and increased energy demands in axons are thought to contribute to neurodegeneration in a number of neurological diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Adult oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) play an important role in these demyelinating diseases by generating new myelinating oligodendrocytes that may help limit axonal degeneration. Thus, promoting the differentiation of OPCs and functional integration of newly generated oligodendrocytes is a crucial avenue for the next generation of therapies. Evidence to date suggests that the immune system may both positively and negatively impact OPC differentiation and endogenous remyelination in disease. Inflammatory cytokines not only suppress OPC differentiation but may also directly affect other functions of OPCs. Recent studies have demonstrated that OPCs and oligodendrocytes in both human multiple sclerosis lesions and mouse models of demyelination can express an immunogenic transcriptional signature and upregulate antigen presenting genes. In inflammatory demyelinating mouse models OPCs are capable of presenting antigen and activating CD8 + T cells. Here we review the evidence for this new role of oligodendroglia as antigen presenting cells and how these inflammatory OPCs (iOPCs) and inflammatory oligodendrocytes (iOLs) may influence myelin repair and other disease processes.

Harrington, E.P., Bergles, D.E., and Calabresi, P.A. Immune cell modulation of oligodendrocyte lineage cell. 19435. 2019 Neurosci Lett.

Concepts Keywords
Antigen Energy demands axons
Axons Inflammatory cytokines
CD8 Neurodegeneration neurological diseases
Cytokines MS
Demyelinating Diseases Branches of biology
Demyelination Glial cells
Endogenous Organ systems
Energy Medical specialties
Immune System Neurology
Immunogenic Remyelination
Modulation Multiple sclerosis
Multiple Sclerosis Oligodendrocyte
Myelin Oligodendrocyte progenitor cell
Neurodegeneration Demyelinating disease
Neurological Diseases T cell
Oligodendrocyte
Oligodendrocytes
Oligodendroglia
OPC
T Cells
Trophic

Semantics

Type Source Name
disease MESH demyelination
disease MESH multiple sclerosis
disease DOID multiple sclerosis
pathway BSID Immune System
gene UNIPROT IMPACT
gene UNIPROT TBXT

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