The Blood-Brain Barrier and Its Intercellular Junctions in Age-Related Brain Disorders.

The Blood-Brain Barrier and Its Intercellular Junctions in Age-Related Brain Disorders.

Publication date: Nov 03, 2019

With age, our cognitive skills and abilities decline. Maybe starting as an annoyance, this decline can become a major impediment to normal daily life. Recent research shows that the neurodegenerative disorders responsible for age associated cognitive dysfunction are mechanistically linked to the state of the microvasculature in the brain. When the microvasculature does not function properly, ischemia, hypoxia, oxidative stress and related pathologic processes ensue, further damaging vascular and neural function. One of the most important and specialized functions of the brain microvasculature is the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which controls the movement of molecules between blood circulation and the brain parenchyma. In this review, we are focusing on tight junctions (TJs), the multiprotein complexes that play an important role in establishing and maintaining barrier function. After a short introduction of the cell types that modulate barrier function via intercellular communication, we examine how age, age related pathologies and the aging of the immune system affects TJs. Then, we review how the TJs are affected in age associated neurodegenerative disorders: Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Lastly, we summarize the TJ aspects of Huntington’s disease and schizophrenia. Barrier dysfunction appears to be a common denominator in neurological disorders, warranting detailed research into the molecular mechanisms behind it. Learning the commonalities and differences in the pathomechanism of the BBB injury in different neurological disorders will predictably lead to development of new therapeutics that improve our life as we age.

Concepts Keywords
Aging
Alzheimer
Blood Brain Barrier
Blood Circulation
Brain
Cognitive
Cognitive Dysfunction
Huntington
Hypoxia
Immune System
Intercellular Communication
Ischemia
Neurodegenerative Disorders
Neurological Disorders
Oxidative Stress
Parenchyma
Parkinson
Pathologies
Schizophrenia
Sci
Tight Junctions

Semantics

Type Source Name
gene UNIPROT RENBP
disease MESH Brain Disorders
disease MESH neurodegenerative disorders
disease MESH cognitive dysfunction
disease MESH ischemia
disease DOID ischemia
disease MESH hypoxia
disease MESH oxidative stress
pathway BSID Oxidative Stress
disease MESH pathologic processes
disease MESH aging
pathway BSID Aging
pathway BSID Immune System
disease MESH schizophrenia
disease DOID schizophrenia
disease MESH neurological disorders
disease MESH development
pathway BSID Tight junction

Original Article

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