Vitamin B5 (d-pantothenic acid) localizes in myelinated structures of the rat brain: Potential role for cerebral vitamin B5 stores in local myelin homeostasis.

Vitamin B5 (d-pantothenic acid) localizes in myelinated structures of the rat brain: Potential role for cerebral vitamin B5 stores in local myelin homeostasis.

Publication date: Nov 20, 2019

Vitamin B5 (d-pantothenic acid; pantothenate) is an essential trace nutrient that functions as the obligate precursor of coenzyme A (CoA), through which it plays key roles in myriad biological processes, including many that regulate carbohydrate, lipid, protein, and nucleic acid metabolism. In the brain, acetyl-CoA is necessary for synthesis of the complex fatty-acyl chains of myelin, and of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. We recently found that cerebral pantothenate is markedly lowered, averaging ∼55% of control values in cases of Huntington’s disease (HD) including those who are pre-symptomatic, and that regions where pantothenate is lowered correspond to those which are more severely damaged. Here we sought to determine the previously unknown distribution of pantothenate in the normal-rat brain, and whether the diabetic rat might be useful as a model for altered cerebral pantothenate metabolism. We employed histological staining (Nissl) to identify brain structures; immunohistochemistry with anti-pantothenate antibodies to determine the distribution of pantothenate in caudate putamen and cerebellum; and gas-chromatography/mass-spectrometry to quantitate levels of pantothenate and other metabolites in normal- and diabetic-rat brain. Remarkably, cerebral pantothenate was almost entirely localized to myelin-containing structures in both experimental groups. Diabetes did not modify levels or disposition of cerebral pantothenate. These findings are consistent with physiological localization of pantothenate in myelinated white-matter structures, where it could serve to support myelin synthesis. Further investigation of cerebral pantothenate is warranted in neurodegenerative diseases such as HD and Alzheimer’s disease, where myelin loss is a known characteristic of pathogenesis.

Ismail, N., Kureishy, N., Church, S.J., Scholefield, M., Unwin, R.D., Xu, J., Patassini, S., and Cooper, G.J.S. Vitamin B5 (d-pantothenic acid) localizes in myelinated structures of the rat brain: Potential role for cerebral vitamin B5 stores in local myelin homeostasis. 06792. 2019 Biochem Biophys Res Commun.

Concepts Keywords
Acetyl CoA Antibodies
Acetylcholine Gas chromatography
Acyl Acetyl-CoA
Alzheimer White matter
Antibodies Myelin
Brain Pantothenic acid
Carbohydrate Alcohols
Caudate Putamen Chemistry
Cerebellum Metabolism
CoA Neuroscience
Coenzyme Branches of biology
Diabetic Experimental groups Diabetes
Gas Chromatography Disease
Histological Staining
Homeostasis
Huntington
Immunohistochemistry
Lipid
Mass Spectrometry
Metabolism
Myelin
Myelinated
Neurodegenerative Diseases
Neurotransmitter
Nucleic Acid
Nutrient
Pantothenate
Pantothenic Acid
Pathogenesis
Protein
Rat
Vitamin
White Matter

Semantics

Type Source Name
disease MESH neurodegenerative diseases
drug DRUGBANK Acetylcholine
drug DRUGBANK Coenzyme A
drug DRUGBANK Pantothenic acid

Original Article

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