The role of NOX inhibitors in neurodegenerative diseases.

The role of NOX inhibitors in neurodegenerative diseases.

Publication date: Dec 01, 2019

Oxidative stress is a key player in both chronic and acute brain disease due to the higher metabolic demand of the brain. Among the producers of free radicals, NADPH-oxidase (NOX) is a major contributor to oxidative stress in neurological disorders. In the brain, the superoxide produced by NOX is mainly found in leukocytes. However, recent studies have reported that it can be found in several other cell types. NOX has been reported to regulate neuronal signaling, memory processing, and central cardiovascular homeostasis. However, overproduction of NOX can contribute to neurotoxicity, CNS degeneration, and cardiovascular disorders. Regarding the above functions, NOX has been shown to play a crucial role in chronic CNS diseases like Parkinson’s disease (PD), Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Huntington’s disease (HD), multiple sclerosis (MS), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and in acute CNS disorders such as stroke, spinal cord injury, traumatic brain injury (TBI), and related cerebrovascular diseases. NOX is a multi-subunit complex consisting of two membrane-associated and four cytosolic subunits. Thus, in recent years, inhibition of NOX activity has drawn a great deal of attention from researchers in the field of treating chronic and acute CNS disorders and preventing secondary complications. Mounting evidence has shown that NOX inhibition is neuroprotective and that inhibiting NOX in circulating immune cells can improve neurological disease conditions. This review summarizes recent studies on the therapeutic effects and pharmacological strategies regarding NOX inhibitors in chronic and acute brain diseases and focuses on the hurdles that should be overcome before their clinical implementation.

Open Access PDF

Barua, S., Kim, J.Y., Yenari, M.A., and Lee, J.E. The role of NOX inhibitors in neurodegenerative diseases. 06805. 2019 IBRO Rep (7):

Concepts Keywords
ALS Neuroprotection
Alzheimer Neurology
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Nervous system
Brain Neurological disorders
Brain Diseases Organ systems
Cardiovascular Branches of biology
Cardiovascular Disorders TBI
Cerebrovascular Diseases Brain damage
CNS Disorders Neurotoxicity
Cytosolic NADPH oxidase
Free Radicals Oxidative stress
Homeostasis Nox
Huntington
Leukocytes
Membrane
Memory
Multiple Sclerosis
NADPH Oxidase
Neurodegenerative Diseases
Neurological
Neurological Disorders
Neuroprotective
Neurotoxicity
Overproduction
Oxidative Stress
Parkinson
Pharmacological
Spinal Cord Injury
Stroke
Superoxide
Traumatic Brain Injury

Semantics

Type Source Name
disease MESH neurodegenerative diseases
pathway REACTOME Neurodegenerative Diseases
disease MESH Oxidative stress
disease MESH brain disease
disease MESH neurological disorders
disease MESH CNS diseases
disease MESH multiple sclerosis
disease MESH amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
disease MESH stroke
disease MESH cerebrovascular diseases
disease MESH multi
disease MESH complications

Original Article

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