AXL and CAV-1 play a role for MTH1 inhibitor TH1579 sensitivity in cutaneous malignant melanoma.

Publication date: Jan 09, 2020

Cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) is the deadliest form of skin cancer and clinically challenging due to its propensity to develop therapy resistance. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can induce DNA damage and play a significant role in CMM. MTH1 protein protects from ROS damage and is often overexpressed in different cancer types including CMM. Herein, we report that MTH1 inhibitor TH1579 induced ROS levels, increased DNA damage responses, caused mitotic arrest and suppressed CMM proliferation leading to cell death both in vitro and in an in vivo xenograft CMM zebrafish disease model. TH1579 was more potent in abrogating cell proliferation and inducing cell death in a heterogeneous co-culture setting when compared with CMM standard treatments, vemurafenib or trametinib, showing its broad anticancer activity. Silencing MTH1 alone exhibited similar cytotoxic effects with concomitant induction of mitotic arrest and ROS induction culminating in cell death in most CMM cell lines tested, further emphasizing the importance of MTH1 in CMM cells. Furthermore, overexpression of receptor tyrosine kinase AXL, previously demonstrated to contribute to BRAF inhibitor resistance, sensitized BRAF mutant and BRAF/NRAS wildtype CMM cells to TH1579. AXL overexpression culminated in increased ROS levels in CMM cells. Moreover, silencing of a protein that has shown opposing effects on cell proliferation, CAV-1, decreased sensitivity to TH1579 in a BRAF inhibitor resistant cell line. AXL-MTH1 and CAV-1-MTH1 mRNA expressions were correlated as seen in CMM clinical samples. Finally, TH1579 in combination with BRAF inhibitor exhibited a more potent cell killing effect in BRAF mutant cells both in vitro and in vivo. In summary, we show that TH1579-mediated efficacy is independent of BRAF/NRAS mutational status but dependent on the expression of AXL and CAV-1.

, Das, Gad, H., Br”autigam, L., Pudelko, L., Tuominen, R., , H”oiom, , Alml”of, , Rajagopal, Hansson, J., Helleday, T., Egyh’azi Brage, S., and Warpman Berglund, U. AXL and CAV-1 play a role for MTH1 inhibitor TH1579 sensitivity in cutaneous malignant melanoma. 25433. 2020 Cell Death Differ.

Concepts Keywords
BRAF Medicine
BRAF Inhibitor Clinical medicine
CMM Cancer treatments
Cytotoxic Melanoma
Inhibitor 2-hydroxy-dATP diphosphatase
Malignant Melanoma DNA repair
Mitotic Sulfonamides
MRNA Vemurafenib
Mutant BRAF
Oxygen Reactive oxygen species
Receptor Tyrosine Kinase CAV
ROS
Vemurafenib
Vivo
Wildtype
Xenograft
Zebrafish

Semantics

Type Source Name
disease MESH malignant melanoma
disease MESH skin cancer
disease MESH DNA damage
disease MESH cancer
drug DRUGBANK Vemurafenib
drug DRUGBANK Trametinib
drug DRUGBANK L-Tyrosine

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