Publication date: Mar 12, 2020
Autophagy is reported as a survival or death-promoting pathway that is highly debatable in different kinds of cancer. Here, we examined the co-effect of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) and silymarin nanoemulsion (SN) treatment on G-361 human melanoma cells via autophagy induction.
The temperature and pH of the media, along with the cell number, were evaluated. The intracellular glucose level and PI3K/mTOR and EGFR downstream pathways were assessed. Autophagy-related genes, related transcriptional factors, and autophagy induction were estimated using confocal microscopy, flow cytometry, and ELISA.
CAP treatment increased the temperature and pH of the media, while its combination with SN resulted in a decrease in intracellular ATP with the downregulation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR survival and RAS/MEK transcriptional pathways. Co-treatment blocked downstream paths of survival pathways and reduced PI3K (2 times), mTOR (10 times), EGFR (5 times), HRAS (5 times), and MEK (10 times). CAP and SN co-treated treatment modulates transcriptional factor expressions (ZKSCAN3, TFEB, FOXO1, CRTC2, and CREBBP) and specific genes (BECN-1, AMBRA-1, MAP1LC3A, and SQSTM) related to autophagy induction.
CAP and SN together activate autophagy in G-361 cells by activating PI3K/mTOR and EGFR pathways, expressing autophagy-related transcription factors and genes.
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Adhikari, M., Adhikari, B., Ghimire, B., Baboota, S., and Choi, E.H. Cold Atmospheric Plasma and Silymarin Nanoemulsion Activate Autophagy in Human Melanoma Cells. 26141. 2020 Int J Mol Sci (21):6.
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