Autoimmune diseases and immune-checkpoint inhibitors for cancer therapy: Review of the literature and personalized risk-based prevention strategy.

Publication date: Mar 17, 2020

Patients with cancer and with preexisting active autoimmune diseases (ADs) have been excluded from immunotherapy clinical trials because of concerns for high susceptibility to development of severe adverse events resulting from exacerbation of their preexisting ADs. However, a growing body of evidence indicates that immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) may be safe and effective in this patient population. However, baseline corticosteroids (CS) and other nonselective immunosuppressants appear to negatively impact drug efficacy, whereas retrospective and case report data suggest that use of specific immunosuppressants may not have the same consequences. Therefore, we propose here a two-step strategy. First, to lower the risk of compromising ICI efficacy before their initiation, nonselective immunosuppressant drugs (nSIs) could be replaced by specific selective immunosuppressant drugs (SI) following a short rotation phase. Subsequently, combining ICI with the selective immunosuppressant could prevent exacerbation of the AD. For the most common active ADs encountered in the context of cancer, we propose specific algorithms to optimize ICI therapy. These preventive strategies go beyond current practices and recommendations, and should be practiced in ICI-specialized clinics, as these require multidisciplinary teams with extensive knowledge in the field of clinical immunology and oncology. In addition, we challenge the exclusion from ICI therapy for patients with cancer and active ADs and propose the implementation of an international registry to study such novel strategies in a prospective fashion.

Haanen, J., Ernstoff, Wang, Y., Menzies, A.M., , Puzanov, Grivas, P., Larkin, J., Peters, S., Thompson, J.A., and Obeid, M. Autoimmune diseases and immune-checkpoint inhibitors for cancer therapy: Review of the literature and personalized risk-based prevention strategy. 26181. 2020 Ann Oncol.

Concepts Keywords
Autoimmune Diseases Context cancer
Cancer Autoimmune diseases
Clinical Immunology Immunotherapy
Clinical Trials Medicine
Corticosteroids Medical specialties
ICI Clinical medicine
Immunosuppressant Immunology
Immunosuppressants Immune system
Immunotherapy Cancer treatments
Oncology Checkpoint inhibitor
Rotation Immunosuppression
Immunosuppressive drug
Immunotherapy
Autoimmunity
Transplantation

Semantics

Type Source Name
disease MESH Autoimmune diseases
disease MESH cancer
disease MESH development

Original Article

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