Pulmonary Delivery of Fenretinide: A Possible Adjuvant Treatment In COVID-19.

Pulmonary Delivery of Fenretinide: A Possible Adjuvant Treatment In COVID-19.

Publication date: May 27, 2020

At present, there is no vaccine or effective standard treatment for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection (or coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19)), which frequently leads to lethal pulmonary inflammatory responses. COVID-19 pathology is characterized by extreme inflammation and amplified immune response with activation of a cytokine storm. A subsequent progression to acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) can take place, which is often followed by death. The causes of these strong inflammatory responses in SARS-CoV-2 infection are still unknown. As uncontrolled pulmonary inflammation is likely the main cause of death in SARS-CoV-2 infection, anti-inflammatory therapeutic interventions are particularly important. Fenretinide N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) retinamide is a bioactive molecule characterized by poly-pharmacological properties and a low toxicity profile. Fenretinide is endowed with antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and immunomodulating properties other than efficacy in obesity/diabetic pathologies. Its anti-inflammatory and antiviral activities, in particular, could likely have utility in multimodal therapies for the treatment of ALI/ARDS in COVID-19 patients. Moreover, fenretinide administration by pulmonary delivery systems could further increase its therapeutic value by carrying high drug concentrations to the lungs and triggering a rapid onset of activity. This is particularly important in SARS-CoV-2 infection, where only a narrow time window exists for therapeutic intervention.

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Concepts Keywords
Acute Lung Injury Infection
Adjuvant SARS
Antiviral Properties efficacy obesity
ARDS Inflammation
Bioactive Extreme inflammation
Coronavirus Coronavirus disease
Cytokine Storm Medical specialties
Diabetic Medicine
Infection Viruses
Inflammation Intensive care medicine
Lungs Coronaviridae
Molecule Zoonoses
Multimodal Animal virology
Obesity Respiratory diseases


Type Source Name
drug DRUGBANK Fenretinide
disease MESH infection
disease MESH pathology
disease MESH inflammation
disease MESH lung injury
disease MESH acute respiratory distress syndrome
disease MESH death
disease MESH pulmonary inflammation
disease MESH cause of death
disease MESH obesity
disease MESH Middle East respiratory syndrome
drug DRUGBANK Angiotensin II
pathway KEGG Apoptosis
disease MESH viral infection
drug DRUGBANK Tretinoin
disease MESH type 2 diabetes
disease MESH tumors
drug DRUGBANK Arachidonic Acid
drug DRUGBANK Doconexent
disease MESH cystic fibrosis
disease MESH osteoporosis
disease MESH asthma
pathway KEGG Asthma
drug DRUGBANK Dinoprostone
drug DRUGBANK Oxygen
disease MESH oxidative stress
drug DRUGBANK Loxapine
disease MESH viremia
disease MESH hepatitis
disease MESH viral burden
disease MESH HIV infection
pathway KEGG Endocytosis
pathway KEGG Autophagy
disease MESH carcinoma
drug DRUGBANK Gelatin
disease MESH thrombocytopenia
disease MESH anemia
disease MESH myelodysplastic syndromes
disease MESH hematologic malignancies
disease MESH splenomegaly
drug DRUGBANK Somatotropin
drug DRUGBANK Water
drug DRUGBANK Ivermectin
drug DRUGBANK Lopinavir
drug DRUGBANK Ritonavir
drug DRUGBANK Hydroxychloroquine
disease MESH malaria
pathway KEGG Malaria
disease MESH autoimmune diseases
disease MESH rheumatoid arthritis
pathway KEGG Rheumatoid arthritis
drug DRUGBANK Tocilizumab
drug DRUGBANK Siltuximab
drug DRUGBANK Sarilumab
disease MESH syndrome
drug DRUGBANK Thalidomide
disease MESH influenza
drug DRUGBANK Lenalidomide
disease MESH multiple myeloma
disease MESH bacterial infections
drug DRUGBANK Methylprednisolone
disease MESH neuroblastoma
drug DRUGBANK Guanosine
disease MESH prostate cancer
pathway KEGG Prostate cancer
disease MESH lung cancer
disease MESH breast cancer
pathway KEGG Breast cancer
disease MESH ovarian cancer
disease MESH Malignant Gliomas
disease MESH renal
disease MESH Cyst
disease MESH acute myelogenous leukemia
drug DRUGBANK Hydroxyprogesterone caproate
drug DRUGBANK Romidepsin
drug DRUGBANK Cardiolipin
disease MESH ZIKV infection
drug DRUGBANK Rituximab
disease MESH B cell lymphoma
disease MESH lymphoma
disease MESH atherosclerosis
disease MESH obstructive pulmonary diseases
disease MESH lung diseases
drug DRUGBANK Diethylstilbestrol
drug DRUGBANK (S)-Des-Me-Ampa
drug DRUGBANK Chloroquine
drug DRUGBANK Carboxyamidotriazole
disease MESH teratogenesis
disease MESH Birth Defects
drug DRUGBANK Nonoxynol-9
disease MESH chromosome abnormality
disease MESH metastasis
disease MESH Critically Ill
disease MESH Septic Shock
drug DRUGBANK Vitamin A

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