Greater risk of severe COVID-19 in non-White ethnicities is not explained by cardiometabolic, socioeconomic, or behavioural factors, or by 25(OH)-vitamin D status: study of 1,326 cases from the UK Biobank

Greater risk of severe COVID-19 in non-White ethnicities is not explained by cardiometabolic, socioeconomic, or behavioural factors, or by 25(OH)-vitamin D status: study of 1,326 cases from the UK Biobank

Publication date: Jun 01, 2020

Background We examined whether the greater severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) amongst men and non-White ethnicities is explained by cardiometabolic, socio-economic, or behavioural factors. Methods We studied 4,510 UK Biobank participants tested for COVID-19 (positive, n=1,326). Multivariate logistic regression models including age, sex, and ethnicity were used to test whether addition of: 1)cardiometabolic factors (diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol, prior myocardial infarction, smoking, BMI); 2)25(OH)-vitamin D; 3)poor diet; 4)Townsend deprivation score; 5)housing (home type, overcrowding); or 6)behavioural factors (sociability, risk taking) attenuated sex/ethnicity associations with COVID-19 status. Results There was over-representation of men and non-White ethnicities in the COVID-19 positive group. Non-Whites had, on average, poorer cardiometabolic profile, lower 25(OH)-vitamin D, greater material deprivation, and were more likely to live in larger households and flats/apartments. Male sex, non-White ethnicity, higher BMI, Townsend deprivation score, and household overcrowding were independently associated with significantly greater odds of COVID-19. The pattern of association was consistent for men and women; cardiometabolic, socio-demographic and behavioural factors did not attenuate sex/ethnicity associations. Conclusions Sex and ethnicity differential pattern of COVID-19 is not adequately explained by variations in cardiometabolic factors, 25(OH)-vitamin D levels, or socio-economic factors. Investigation of alternative biological pathways and different genetic susceptibilities is warranted.

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Concepts Keywords
Analytic Statistical computing
Asian Positive
Asian Indian Report Hypertension diabetes
Austria Prior myocardial infarction
Binary Acute Myocardial Infarction
Binary Variable Respiratory failure
Biochemistry SARS
Black African Mechanical ventilation
Black Caribbean Organic compounds
Blood Articles
BMI Health
Boston Body shape
Bungalow Epidemiology
Caucasian RTT
Chinese Biomolecules
Cholesterol Fertility
Cohabitation Prospective cohort study
Cohort Logistic regression
Confidence Interval Vitamin C
Coronavirus Body mass index
Cross Html
Demographic Pdf
Diabetes Cmp
Differential Http
England
Enzyme
Epidemiological
Ethics
Frequency
Genetic
Hospital
Huntingdon
Hypercholesterolaemia
Hypertension
Incidence
Infection
Logistic Regression
London
Multivariate
Myocardial Infarction
NHS
NHS London
NIHR
Odds Ratio
Oestrogen
Oxford
Pandemic
Processed Meat
Protocol
Queen Mary
Raisi
Receptor
Regression
Residuals
Risk Perception
Seasonality
Serum
Smoking
Socialisation
Socioeconomic
Southampton
Statistical Computing
Test
Townsend
Univariate
Vienna
Vitamin
White
William Harvey

Semantics

Type Source Name
drug DRUGBANK Vitamin D
disease MESH men
disease MESH hypertension
drug DRUGBANK Cholesterol
disease MESH myocardial infarction
disease MESH habits
disease MESH lifestyle
drug DRUGBANK Hydroxyethyl Starch
disease MESH infection
drug DRUGBANK Coenzyme M
drug DRUGBANK Etoperidone
disease MESH death
drug DRUGBANK Pentaerythritol tetranitrate
disease MESH obesity
disease MESH complications
disease MESH respiratory failure
disease MESH employment
disease MESH risk factors
disease MESH cardiovascular disease
disease MESH breast cancer
pathway KEGG Breast cancer
drug DRUGBANK Cytidine-5′-Monophosphate
disease MESH Syndr
drug DRUGBANK gamma-Aminobutyric acid

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