The Promising Role of miR-21 as a Cancer Biomarker and Its Importance in RNA-Based Therapeutics.

The Promising Role of miR-21 as a Cancer Biomarker and Its Importance in RNA-Based Therapeutics.

Publication date: Jun 05, 2020

MicroRNAs are small noncoding transcripts that posttranscriptionally regulate gene expression via base-pairing complementarity. Their role in cancer can be related to tumor suppression or oncogenic function. Moreover, they have been linked to processes recognized as hallmarks of cancer, such as apoptosis, invasion, metastasis, and proliferation. Particularly, one of the first oncomiRs found upregulated in a variety of cancers, such as gliomas, breast cancer, and colorectal cancer, was microRNA-21 (miR-21). Some of its target genes associated with cancer are PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog), PDCD4 (programmed cell death protein 4), RECK (reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motifs), and STAT3 (signal transducer activator of transcription 3). As a result, miR-21 has been proposed as a plausible diagnostic and prognostic biomarker, as well as a therapeutic target for several types of cancer. Currently, research and clinical trials to inhibit miR-21 through anti-miR-21 oligonucleotides and ADM-21 are being conducted. As all of the evidence suggests, miR-21 is involved in carcinogenic processes; therefore, inhibiting it could have effects on more than one type of cancer. However, whether miR-21 can be used as a tissue-specific biomarker should be analyzed with caution. Consequently, the purpose of this review is to outline the available information and recent advances regarding miR-21 as a potential biomarker in the clinical setting and as a therapeutic target in cancer to highlight its importance in the era of precision medicine.

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Concepts Keywords
Apoptosis RNA
Base Pairing Gene expression
Biomarker MicroRNA
Breast Cancer MIRN21
Cancer Genetics
Carcinogenic Apoptosis
Clinical Trials
Colorectal Cancer
Precision Medicine
Tumor Suppression


Type Source Name
disease MESH Cancer
pathway KEGG Apoptosis
disease MESH metastasis
disease MESH gliomas
disease MESH breast cancer
pathway KEGG Breast cancer
disease MESH colorectal cancer
pathway KEGG Colorectal cancer
drug DRUGBANK L-Cysteine
disease MESH death
drug DRUGBANK Coenzyme M
disease MESH DiGeorge syndrome
disease MESH repression
disease MESH lymphoblastic lymphoma
disease MESH growth
drug DRUGBANK Estradiol
disease MESH estrogen
disease MESH neuroblastoma
drug DRUGBANK Carboxyamidotriazole
disease MESH pancreatic cancer
pathway KEGG Pancreatic cancer
disease MESH carcinoma
disease MESH hepatocellular carcinoma
pathway KEGG Hepatocellular carcinoma
disease MESH melanoma
pathway KEGG Melanoma
disease MESH lymphoma
drug DRUGBANK Rasagiline
disease MESH Diagnosis
disease MESH carcinogenesis
disease MESH prostate cancers
disease MESH recurrence
drug DRUGBANK Teniposide
drug DRUGBANK Paclitaxel
drug DRUGBANK Fluorouracil
drug DRUGBANK Doxorubicin
drug DRUGBANK Gemcitabine
drug DRUGBANK Saquinavir
pathway KEGG Prostate cancer
disease MESH ovarian cancers
drug DRUGBANK Platinum
drug DRUGBANK Trastuzumab
disease MESH cardiovascular disease
drug DRUGBANK Oxygen
pathway KEGG Peroxisome
disease MESH liver steatosis
drug DRUGBANK Antithymocyte immunoglobulin (rabbit)
disease MESH renal
disease MESH fibrosis
disease MESH bladder cancer
pathway KEGG Bladder cancer
disease MESH tic
drug DRUGBANK Acetylsalicylic acid
pathway KEGG Cell cycle
pathway KEGG Necroptosis
drug DRUGBANK Myricetin
drug DRUGBANK Trestolone
drug DRUGBANK Guanosine
disease MESH hepatocellular cancer
drug DRUGBANK Curcumin
drug DRUGBANK Lauric Acid
drug DRUGBANK Troleandomycin
drug DRUGBANK Dextrose unspecified form
disease MESH rectal cancer
pathway KEGG Glioma
drug DRUGBANK (S)-Des-Me-Ampa
disease MESH lung cancer
disease MESH adenocarcinoma
disease MESH esophageal cancer
disease MESH Alport syndrome
disease MESH gastric cancer
pathway KEGG Gastric cancer
disease MESH myocardial infarction
disease MESH inflammation
disease MESH infarction
disease MESH cholestasis
disease MESH multiple myeloma
drug DRUGBANK Methylergometrine

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