Publication date: Aug 01, 2020
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has reached a pandemic level. SARS-CoV-2 infects host cells through ACE2 receptors, leading to COVID-19-related pneumonia. The rapid increase in confirmed cases makes the prevention and control of COVID-19 extremely serious. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) assays remain the molecular test of choice for the etiologic diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection while radiographic findings (chest computed tomography [CT]) and antibody-based techniques are being introduced as supplemental tools. Novel virus also cause chronic damage to the cardiovascular system, and attention should be given to cardiovascular protection during treatment for COVID-19. Acute cardiac injury determined by elevated high-sensitivity troponin levels is commonly observed in severe cases and is strongly associated with mortality. This review suggests that cardiovascular comorbidities are common in patients with COVID-19 and such patients are at higher risk of morbidity and mortality. The continuation of clinically indicated ACE inhibitor and ARB medications is recommended in COVID-19. We review the basics of coronaviruses, novel molecular targets for the coronaviruses with a focus on COVID-19, along with their effects on the cardiovascular system.
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