FRAMe: Familial Risk Assessment of Melanoma-a risk prediction tool to guide CDKN2A germline mutation testing in Australian familial melanoma.

Publication date: Sep 29, 2020

Germline mutations in CDKN2A greatly increase risk of developing cutaneous melanoma. We have constructed a risk prediction model, Familial Risk Assessment of Melanoma (FRAMe), for estimating the likelihood of carrying a heritable CDKN2A mutation among Australian families, where the prevalence of these mutations is low. Using logistic regression, we analysed characteristics of 299 Australian families recruited through the Sydney site of GenoMEL (international melanoma genetics consortium) with at least three cases of cutaneous melanoma (in situ and invasive) among first-degree blood relatives, for predictors of the presence of a pathogenic CDKN2A mutation. The final multivariable prediction model was externally validated in an independent cohort of 61 melanoma kindreds recruited through GenoMEL Queensland. Family variables independently associated with the presence of a CDKN2A mutation in a multivariable model were number of individuals diagnosed with melanoma under 40 years of age, number of individuals diagnosed with more than one primary melanoma, and number of individuals blood related to a melanoma case in the first degree diagnosed with any cancer excluding melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer. The number of individuals diagnosed with pancreatic cancer was not independently associated with mutation status. The risk prediction model had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.851 (95% CI 0.793, 0.909) in the training dataset, and 0.745 (95%CI 0.612, 0.877) in the validation dataset. This model is the first to be developed and validated using only Australian data, which is important given the higher rate of melanoma in the population. This model will help to effectively identify families suitable for genetic counselling and testing in areas of high ambient ultraviolet radiation. A user-friendly electronic nomogram is available at .

Concepts Keywords
Ambient Cutaneous melanoma
AUC Independent cohort melanoma
Blood Counselling
Cohort Radiation
Genetic Counselling RTT
Germline Branches of biology
Heritable Cutaneous conditions
Logistic Regression Melanoma
Melanoma CDKN2A
Mutation Cancer
Nomogram Skin cancer
Pathogenic Mutation
Queensland Dysplastic nevus syndrome
Receiver Operating Characteristic Radiation
Skin Cancer
Ultraviolet Radiation


Type Source Name
disease MESH Melanoma
pathway KEGG Melanoma
disease MESH cancer
disease MESH skin cancer
disease MESH pancreatic cancer
pathway KEGG Pancreatic cancer

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