Publication date: Mar 31, 2021
Our aim is to review several recent landmark studies discussing the application of advanced neuroimaging to guide target selection in deep brain stimulation (DBS) for psychiatric disorders. We performed a PubMed literature search of articles related to psychiatric neurosurgery, DBS, diffusion tensor imaging, probabilistic tractography, functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and blood oxygen level-dependent activation. Relevant articles were included in the review. Recent advances in neuroimaging, namely the use of diffusion tensor imaging, probabilistic tractography, functional MRI, and Positron emission tomography have provided higher resolution depictions of structural and functional connectivity between regions of interest. Applying these imaging modalities to DBS has increased understanding of the mechanism of action of DBS from the single structure to network level, allowed for new DBS targets to be discovered, and allowed for individualized DBS targeting for psychiatric indications. Advanced neuroimaging techniques may be especially important to guide personalized DBS targeting in psychiatric disorders such as treatment-resistant depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder where symptom profiles and underlying disordered circuitry are more heterogeneous. These articles suggest that advanced imaging can help to further individualize and optimize DBS, a promising next step in improving its efficacy.