Gene expression studies in Depression development and treatment: an overview of the underlying molecular mechanisms and biological processes to identify biomarkers.

Gene expression studies in Depression development and treatment: an overview of the underlying molecular mechanisms and biological processes to identify biomarkers.

Publication date: Jun 08, 2021

A combination of different risk factors, such as genetic, environmental and psychological factors, together with immune system, stress response, brain neuroplasticity and the regulation of neurotransmitters, is thought to lead to the development of major depressive disorder (MDD). A growing number of studies have tried to investigate the underlying mechanisms of MDD by analysing the expression levels of genes involved in such biological processes. These studies have shown that MDD is not just a brain disorder, but also a body disorder, and this is mainly due to the interplay between the periphery and the Central Nervous System (CNS). To this purpose, most of the studies conducted so far have mainly dedicated to the analysis of the gene expression levels using postmortem brain tissue as well as peripheral blood samples of MDD patients. In this paper, we reviewed the current literature on candidate gene expression alterations and the few existing transcriptomics studies in MDD focusing on inflammation, neuroplasticity, neurotransmitters and stress-related genes. Moreover, we focused our attention on studies, which have investigated mRNA levels as biomarkers to predict therapy outcomes. This is important as many patients do not respond to antidepressant medication or could experience adverse side effects, leading to the interruption of treatment. Unfortunately, the right choice of antidepressant for each individual still remains largely a matter of taking an educated guess.

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Concepts Keywords
Blood Biomarker
Depressive Neurotransmitter
Environmental Human brain
Therapy Major depressive disorder
Transcriptomics Neurotrauma
Branches of biology
Depression treatment
Management of depression


Type Source Name
disease MESH Depression
disease MESH development
disease MESH risk factors
disease MESH major depressive disorder
disease MESH brain disorder
disease MESH inflammation
disease MESH depressive disorder
disease MESH sleep
disease MESH neurological disorders
disease MESH immune diseases
disease MESH multiple sclerosis
drug DRUGBANK N-acetylsulfanilyl chloride
disease MESH melanoma
pathway KEGG Melanoma
drug DRUGBANK Ethanol
disease MESH oxidative stress
drug DRUGBANK Oxygen
drug DRUGBANK Copper
drug DRUGBANK Zinc
drug DRUGBANK Glutathione
drug DRUGBANK Coenzyme M
drug DRUGBANK Serotonin
disease MESH hypoxia
disease MESH ischemia
drug DRUGBANK Dextrose unspecified form
drug DRUGBANK Fructose
drug DRUGBANK Pyridoxal Phosphate
disease MESH cognitive impairment
drug DRUGBANK Norepinephrine
drug DRUGBANK gamma-Aminobutyric acid
drug DRUGBANK Dopamine
disease MESH schizophrenia
disease MESH mental illnesses
drug DRUGBANK Epinephrine
drug DRUGBANK Propanoic acid
drug DRUGBANK Ketamine
drug DRUGBANK Ilex paraguariensis leaf
disease MESH suicide
disease MESH completed suicide
drug DRUGBANK Cysteamine
drug DRUGBANK Potassium
drug DRUGBANK Calcium
disease MESH pathology
disease MESH abnormalities
drug DRUGBANK Esomeprazole
drug DRUGBANK Corticotropin
drug DRUGBANK Oxytocin
drug DRUGBANK Serine
drug DRUGBANK L-Threonine
pathway KEGG Cellular senescence
disease MESH dissociation
disease MESH glucocorticoid resistance
drug DRUGBANK L-Aspartic Acid
disease MESH relapses
drug DRUGBANK Azelaic acid
drug DRUGBANK Zoledronic acid
drug DRUGBANK Escitalopram
disease MESH life style
drug DRUGBANK Trestolone
drug DRUGBANK Dexamethasone
disease MESH Cancer
disease MESH mood disorders
disease MESH treatment resistant depression
disease MESH cerebral ischemia
drug DRUGBANK Glycine
disease MESH aging
drug DRUGBANK Acetylcholine
drug DRUGBANK Glutamic Acid
drug DRUGBANK Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate
disease MESH bipolar disorder
drug DRUGBANK Sulfasalazine
drug DRUGBANK Bupropion
drug DRUGBANK Sertraline
drug DRUGBANK Venlafaxine

Original Article

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