Autologous ATG-free hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for refractory autoimmune rheumatic diseases: a Latin American cohort.

Autologous ATG-free hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for refractory autoimmune rheumatic diseases: a Latin American cohort.

Publication date: Sep 29, 2021

Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been recognized as treatment alternative for patients with severe, refractory autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARDs). Usually, anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG)-containing conditioning regimens are employed; however, ATG is unavailable in some developing nations. We report our 15-year clinical experience autografting patients with ARDs with an ATG-free conditioning regimen and a brief assessment of patient-reported outcomes post-HSCT. All patients had active disease and were resistant to multiple lines of treatment. Event-free survival (EFS) was assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Eight patients underwent autologous HSCT. Diagnoses included juvenile idiopathic arthritis (n = 3), systemic lupus erythematosus (n = 2), systemic sclerosis (n = 2), and rheumatoid arthritis (n = 1). Median time from diagnosis to HSCT was 3 years (0. 75-19). Hematological recovery was documented in all recipients, and 4 patients (50%) completed the procedure in a completely ambulatory setting. Five (62. 5%) patients achieved complete response and 3 (37. 5%) partial response. The median EFS was 7 months (95% CI, 4. 97-9. 02), and the 1-year EFS rate was 21. 9% (95% CI, 18. 25-25. 76). Transplant-related mortality was 0%, and 1 recipient died 8 years post-HSCT due to chronic kidney disease. Six (75%) patients presented steroid dosage reduction post-HSCT, and 2 (25%) perceived improvement in functionality despite having relapsed. HSCT is a viable treatment alternative for selected patients with severe therapy-resistant ARDs, as an improvement in disease management and quality of life was documented. The need remains to elucidate the characteristics of the optimal HSCT candidate, as well as the adequate conditioning regimen when ATG is not available. Key Points • Despite advances in the treatment of autoimmune rheumatic diseases, some patients remain refractory. In this context, autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) rises as a viable alternative. • Of 8 HSCT recipients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases, 5 (62. 5%) patients achieved complete response and 3 (37. 5%) partial response, with a 1-year event-free survival of 21. 9%. • Transplant-related mortality was 0%, with 4 (50%) patients autografted in a completely outpatient setting. • Even when relapse presented, patients reported an improvement in functionality and quality of life; also, a better response to DMARDs and a reduction in steroid dependency post-HSCT were documented.

Concepts Keywords
3years Medical specialties
Arthritis Clinical medicine
Hematopoietic Stem cells
Kidney Transplantation medicine
Latin Hematology
Lymphology
Surgical oncology
HSCT
Transplantation
ATG

Semantics

Type Source Name
pathway KEGG Systemic lupus erythematosus
disease MESH systemic lupus erythematosus
disease MESH juvenile idiopathic arthritis
disease MESH Diagnoses
disease MESH rheumatic diseases
disease MESH systemic sclerosis
disease MESH rheumatoid arthritis
pathway KEGG Rheumatoid arthritis
disease MESH chronic kidney disease
disease MESH relapse
drug DRUGBANK Tropicamide
disease MESH Autoimmune disease

Original Article

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