Drug overdose deaths involving cocaine and psychostimulants with abuse potential among racial and ethnic groups – United States, 2004-2019.

Drug overdose deaths involving cocaine and psychostimulants with abuse potential among racial and ethnic groups – United States, 2004-2019.

Publication date: Oct 01, 2021

Drug overdose deaths involving stimulants, including cocaine and psychostimulants with abuse potential (e. g., methamphetamine), have been increasing, partly because of co-involvement with opioids. Stimulant-involved overdose deaths have disproportionately increased among non-Hispanic Black (Black) and non-Hispanic American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN) persons; however, the role of opioids in exacerbating disproportionate stimulant-involved death rates is unclear. Analysis of National Vital Statistics System multiple cause-of-death mortality files examined age-adjusted cocaine- and psychostimulant-involved death rates. Analyses of death rates stratified by racial and ethnic group and opioid co-involvement included: 1) Joinpoint regression of 2004-2019 trends, 2) changes in rates from 2018 to 2019, and 3) demographic and geographic characteristics of 2019 deaths. From 2004 to 2019, cocaine and psychostimulant-involved death rates were higher for Black and AI/AN persons, respectively. Among all groups, increases in cocaine-involved overdose rates were largely driven by opioid co-involvement, particularly after 2013. From 2004 to 2019, rates for psychostimulant-involved deaths increased with and without opioid co-involvement. Rates for overdoses co-involving cocaine and synthetic opioids increased from 2018 to 2019 for Hispanic, non-Hispanic White (White), and Black persons. Psychostimulant-involved overdose rates with and without synthetic opioid co-involvement increased among Hispanic, White, and Black persons. In 2019, Black and AI/AN persons continued to experience higher cocaine- and psychostimulant-involved death rates, respectively. Stimulant-involved deaths continue to increase, and the role of opioids in driving these deaths varies by race and ethnicity. Ensuring equitable access to proven prevention and treatment interventions and incorporating social determinants of health into future research around effective pharmacotherapies may help reduce stimulant-involved overdose deaths.

Concepts Keywords
Alaskan
Cocaine
Exacerbating
Hispanic

Semantics

Type Source Name
drug DRUGBANK Cocaine
drug DRUGBANK Metamfetamine
disease MESH death
disease MESH social determinants of health

Original Article

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