Blended Learning for the “Multi-Track” Undergraduate Students in Ghana in an Adverse Era.

Publication date: Jun 20, 2023

The sudden emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic led to a paradigm shift in the status quo of education. Institutions globally migrated from traditional face-to-face (F2F) learning to online learning to achieve the objectives of Sustainable Development Goal Four (SDG 4). However, Ghana and its peer countries experienced unique challenges which hinder smooth online instruction delivery. Since 2017, Ghana has subscribed to a multi-track year-round education (MT-YRE) for its students at the Senior High School level because of limited physical capacity. In the wake of COVID-19 with its social distancing norms, the failure of online learning compelled some universities in Ghana to adopt the multi-track system temporarily for its undergraduates. In this phenomenological qualitative study, a snowball sampling technique was used to solicit interview data from undergraduate students (n = 20) in some selected universities on their perceptions of the MT-YRE and future education delivery. Thematic analysis suggests that blended learning is a way to mitigate the “challenge-ridden” online learning and as a solution to the MT-YRE. In the MT-YRE, learners experienced academic anxiety and complained about its intensive nature although there was a positive teacher-student relationship and peer-to-peer relations. They perceived their online experience in 2020 as ineffective and called for a blended modality of instruction for better social interactions. The rapid use of mobile technologies and social media was considered an enabler of blended learning. It is recommended that policymakers, school authorities, and educators implement a blended learning model tailored to the needs of learners post-pandemic.

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Concepts Keywords
Ghana blended learning
Pandemic higher education, Ghana
Snowball multi-track year-round education
Undergraduates undergraduates


Type Source Name
disease MESH COVID-19 pandemic
disease VO ineffective
drug DRUGBANK Tropicamide
disease IDO production
disease IDO process
disease IDO country
drug DRUGBANK Coenzyme M
disease MESH infectious disease
pathway REACTOME Infectious disease
disease VO organization
disease VO population
disease VO vaccine
disease VO effective
disease VO efficient
disease IDO facility
disease VO protocol
disease MESH coronavirus infection
disease VO time
drug DRUGBANK Spinosad
disease VO effectiveness
drug DRUGBANK Methionine
disease IDO host
disease MESH uncertainty
disease MESH emergency
disease VO IpaD
disease VO company
drug DRUGBANK Isoxaflutole
disease VO Tax
disease MESH weight gain
disease MESH Childhood Obesity
disease MESH childhood trauma
disease MESH Educational Attainment
disease VO Equity
disease MESH chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
disease IDO intervention
disease IDO quality

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