Metabolomic and gut microbiome profiles across the spectrum of community-based COVID and non-COVID disease.

Publication date: Jun 27, 2023

Whilst most individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection have relatively mild disease, managed in the community, it was noted early in the pandemic that individuals with cardiovascular risk factors were more likely to experience severe acute disease, requiring hospitalisation. As the pandemic has progressed, increasing concern has also developed over long symptom duration in many individuals after SARS-CoV-2 infection, including among the majority who are managed acutely in the community. Risk factors for long symptom duration, including biological variables, are still poorly defined. Here, we examine post-illness metabolomic profiles, using nuclear magnetic resonance (Nightingale Health Oyj), and gut-microbiome profiles, using shotgun metagenomic sequencing (Illumina Inc), in 2561 community-dwelling participants with SARS-CoV-2. Illness duration ranged from asymptomatic (n = 307) to Post-COVID Syndrome (n = 180), and included participants with prolonged non-COVID-19 illnesses (n = 287). We also assess a pre-established metabolomic biomarker score, previously associated with hospitalisation for both acute pneumonia and severe acute COVID-19 illness, for its association with illness duration. We found an atherogenic-dyslipidaemic metabolic profile, including biomarkers such as fatty acids and cholesterol, was associated with longer duration of illness, both in individuals with and without SARS-CoV-2 infection. Greater values of a pre-existing metabolomic biomarker score also associated with longer duration of illness, regardless of SARS-CoV-2 infection. We found no association between illness duration and gut microbiome profiles in convalescence. This highlights the potential role of cardiometabolic dysfunction in relation to the experience of long duration symptoms after symptoms of acute infection, both COVID-19 as well as other illnesses.

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Concepts Keywords
Biomarkers Acute
Cholesterol Community
Long Cov
Pneumonia Covid
Shotgun Disease


Type Source Name
disease MESH SARS-CoV-2 infection
pathway REACTOME SARS-CoV-2 Infection
disease MESH acute disease
disease IDO symptom
disease MESH Syndrome
disease MESH pneumonia
drug DRUGBANK Cholesterol
disease MESH convalescence
disease IDO acute infection
disease MESH Long Covid
drug DRUGBANK Coenzyme M
disease MESH infection
disease VO vaccination
drug DRUGBANK Potassium Chloride
disease MESH asymptomatic infection
disease MESH cardiovascular disease
disease MESH Infectious Diseases
disease VO population
drug DRUGBANK Amino acids
disease VO Glycoprotein
disease IDO blood
disease MESH obesity
disease MESH morbidities
disease MESH inflammation
drug DRUGBANK Isoxaflutole
disease IDO cell
disease MESH lifestyle
drug DRUGBANK Imidacloprid
drug DRUGBANK Amoxicillin
drug DRUGBANK Clavulanic acid
drug DRUGBANK Ribavirin
disease IDO commensal
drug DRUGBANK Gold
disease IDO history
disease MESH dysbiosis
disease VO report
disease MESH influenza
disease VO time
disease VO Gap
disease IDO algorithm
drug DRUGBANK Dextrose unspecified form
drug DRUGBANK Creatinine
disease VO protocol
disease VO USA
disease IDO host
disease IDO quality
drug DRUGBANK Trimebutine
drug DRUGBANK Methionine
disease MESH asthma
pathway KEGG Asthma
disease MESH hay fever
disease MESH eczema
drug DRUGBANK Ethanol
disease VO frequency
drug DRUGBANK Esomeprazole
disease VO vaccine
disease VO effectiveness
disease MESH death
disease MESH lipid metabolism disorders
drug DRUGBANK Alpha-Linolenic Acid
disease IDO susceptibility
disease MESH sequelae
disease MESH metabolic syndrome
disease MESH vascular diseases
drug DRUGBANK Stavudine
disease MESH ischaemic stroke
disease MESH coronary heart disease
disease MESH hepatitis
drug DRUGBANK Serine
drug DRUGBANK Etodolac
drug DRUGBANK Ademetionine
disease IDO facility

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