Synthesis of Long COVID Symptoms: An Evidence-Based Standardized Mapping Study With the Omaha System.

Publication date: Jun 28, 2023

Background: In COVID-19 survivors, symptom burden is a significant and multifaceted personal and societal challenge. The Omaha system is a standardized terminology used by researchers and clinicians for documentation and analysis of meaningful data for whole-person health. Given the urgent need for a standardized symptom checklist specific to the long COVID population, the purpose of the present study was to identify long COVID symptoms from the published literature (native symptoms) and map those to the Omaha system signs/symptoms terms. Methods: The long COVID symptoms identified from 13 literatures were mapped to the Omaha system signs/symptoms, using an expert consensus approach. The criteria for mapping were that the long COVID signs/symptoms had to contain either a one-to-one match (exact meaning of the native terms and the signs/symptoms) or a partial match (similar but not exact meaning). Results: The synthesis of the 217 native symptoms of long COVID and mapping analysis to the Omaha problems and signs/symptoms level resulted in a combined, deduplicated, and standardized list of 74 signs/symptoms for 23 problems. Of these, 72 (97. 3%) of native signs/symptoms were a full match at the problem level, and 67 (90. 5%) of native signs/symptoms were a full or partial match at the sign/symptoms level. Conclusions: The present study is the first step in identifying a standardized evidence-based symptom checklist for long COVID patients. This checklist may be used in practice and research for assessment, tracking, and intervention planning as well as longitudinal analysis of symptom resolution and intervention effectiveness.

Concepts Keywords
Clinicians long COVID
Covid mapping
Deduplicated Omaha system
Expert symptoms
Omaha whole of health


Type Source Name
disease MESH Long COVID
disease MESH COVID-19
disease IDO symptom
disease VO population
disease IDO intervention
disease VO effectiveness

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