Cellular immunity reflects the persistent symptoms among COVID-19 recovered patients in Japan.

Publication date: Jul 08, 2023

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) often causes persistent symptoms long after infection, referred to as “long COVID” or post-acute COVID-19 syndrome (PACS). This phenomenon has been studied primarily concerning B-cell immunity, while the involvement of T-cell immunity is still unclear. This retrospective study aimed to examine the relationship among the number of symptoms, cytokine levels, and the Enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) assay data in patients with COVID-19. To examine inflammatory conditions, plasma interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, IL-18, chemokine ligand 9 (CXCL9), chemokine ligand 3 (CCL3), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels were analyzed using plasma obtained from COVID-19 recovery patients and healthy controls (HC). These levels were significantly higher in the COVID-19 group than those in the HC group. ELISPOT assays were performed to investigate the correlation between COVID-19 persistent symptoms and T-cell immunity. Cluster analysis of ELISPOT categorized COVID-19 recovery patients in the ELISPOT-high and -low groups, based on the values of S1, S2, and N. The number of persistent symptoms was significantly higher in the ELISPOT-low group than those in the ELISPOT-high group. Thus, T cell immunity is critical for the rapid elimination of COVID-19 persistent symptoms, and its measurement immediately after COVID-19 recovery might predict long-term COVID-19 or PACS.

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Concepts Keywords
Coronavirus Cell
Covid Chemokine
Healthy Covid
Immunosorbent Elispot
Japan Examine


Type Source Name
disease MESH COVID-19
pathway KEGG Coronavirus disease
disease MESH causes
disease MESH infection
disease MESH long COVID
disease IDO cell
disease IDO assay
drug DRUGBANK Interleukin-10
drug DRUGBANK Coenzyme M
disease IDO infectivity
disease MESH alopecia
pathway REACTOME Immune System
disease IDO acute infection
disease VO vaccination
disease IDO blood
disease IDO pathogen
drug DRUGBANK Gold
disease MESH clinical significance
disease IDO symptom
drug DRUGBANK Pentaerythritol tetranitrate
disease VO frequency
disease IDO history
drug DRUGBANK Favipiravir
drug DRUGBANK Ritonavir
drug DRUGBANK Ciclesonide
drug DRUGBANK Esomeprazole
disease VO immunized
disease VO efficiency
disease VO ORF
drug DRUGBANK Isoxaflutole
disease MESH fibrosis
disease MESH critical illness
disease IDO production
disease MESH inflammation
disease MESH acute respiratory distress syndrome
disease VO unvaccinated
disease VO population
disease VO vaccinated
disease VO vaccine
disease VO vaccine efficacy
disease MESH autoimmune disease
drug DRUGBANK Trestolone
drug DRUGBANK Methotrexate
disease MESH dementia
drug DRUGBANK Heparin
disease VO USA
disease VO Glycoprotein
disease MESH sequelae
disease VO Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2
drug DRUGBANK Guanosine
disease MESH lung disease
drug DRUGBANK Etoperidone

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