Estimating the delivery costs of COVID-19 vaccination using the COVID-19 Vaccine Introduction and deployment Costing (CVIC) tool: the Lao People’s Democratic Republic experience.

Publication date: Jul 10, 2023

The COVID-19 Vaccine Introduction and deployment Costing (CVIC) tool was developed to assist countries to estimate incremental financial costs to roll out COVID-19 vaccines. This article describes the purposes, assumptions and methods used in the CVIC tool and presents the estimated financial costs of delivering COVID-19 vaccines in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). From March to September 2021, a multidisciplinary team in Lao PDR was involved in the costing exercise of the National Deployment and Vaccination Plan for COVID-19 vaccines to develop potential scenarios and gather inputs using the CVIC tool. Financial costs of introducing COVID-19 vaccines for 3 years from 2021 to 2023 were projected from the government perspective. All costs were collected in 2021 Lao Kip and presented in United States dollar. From 2021 to 2023, the financial cost required to vaccinate all adults in Lao PDR with primary series of COVID-19 vaccines (1 dose for Ad26. COV2. S (recombinant) vaccine and 2 doses for the other vaccine products) is estimated to be US$6. 44 million (excluding vaccine costs) and additionally US$1. 44 million and US$1. 62 million to include teenagers and children, respectively. These translate to financial costs of US$0. 79-0. 81 per dose, which decrease to US$0. 6 when two boosters are introduced to the population. Capital and operational cold-chain costs contributed 15-34% and 15-24% of the total costs in all scenarios, respectively. 17-26% went to data management, monitoring and evaluation, and oversight, and 13-22% to vaccine delivery. With the CVIC tool, costs of five scenarios were estimated with different target population and booster dose use. These facilitated Lao PDR to refine their strategic planning for COVID-19 vaccine rollout and to decide on the level of external resources needed to mobilize and support outreach services. The results may further inform inputs in cost-effectiveness or cost-benefit analyses and potentially be applied and adjusted in similar low- and middle-income settings.

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Concepts Keywords
Boosters Coronavirus
Democratic Costs
Financial COVID-19
Vaccination CVIC


Type Source Name
disease MESH COVID-19
disease VO vaccination
disease VO COVID-19 vaccine
disease VO dose
disease VO Ad26.COV2.S
disease VO vaccine
disease VO population
disease VO effectiveness
pathway REACTOME Reproduction
disease VO coronavirus vaccine
disease VO effective
disease MESH Emergency
drug DRUGBANK Coenzyme M
drug DRUGBANK Trestolone
disease VO immunization
disease IDO country
disease MESH influenza
disease VO vaccinated
disease IDO process
drug DRUGBANK Sulpiride
disease VO vaccine transportation
disease VO storage
drug DRUGBANK Etoperidone
disease VO injection
disease MESH causality
drug DRUGBANK Pentaerythritol tetranitrate
disease VO document
disease VO Comirnaty
disease IDO cell
disease VO CoronaVac
drug DRUGBANK Stavudine
disease VO vaccination coverage
disease VO time
disease VO efficient
disease VO company
disease VO efficiency
disease MESH uncertainty
disease VO organization
disease VO USA
drug DRUGBANK Spinosad
disease VO Gap
drug DRUGBANK Gold
disease VO report
disease VO Optaflu

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