Association between genetic polymorphism, severity, and treatment response among COVID-19 infected Egyptian patients.

Publication date: Apr 20, 2023

Background: The world has been suffering from the Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic since the end of 2019. The COVID-19-infected patients differ in the severity of the infection and the treatment response. Several studies have been conducted to explore the factors that affect the severity of COVID-19 infection. One of these factors is the polymorphism of the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) and the type 2 transmembrane serine protease (TMPRSS2) genes since these two proteins have a role in the entry of the virus into the cell. Also, the ACE-1 regulates the ACE-2 expression, so it is speculated to influence the COVID-19 severity. Objective: This study investigates the relationship between the ACE-1, ACE-2, and TMPRSS2 genes single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) and the COVID-19 disease severity, treatment response, need for hospitalization, and ICU admission in Egyptian patients. Patients and Methods: The current study is an observational prospective, cohort study, in which 109 total COVID-19 patients and 20 healthy volunteers were enrolled. Of those 109 patients, 51 patients were infected with the non-severe disease and were treated in an outpatient setting, and 58 suffered from severe disease and required hospitalization and were admitted to the ICU. All 109 COVID-19 patients received the treatment according to the Egyptian treatment protocol. Results: Genotypes and allele frequencies among severe and non-severe patients were determined for ACE-1 rs4343, TMPRSS2 rs12329760, and ACE-2 rs908004. The GG genotype and the wild allele of the ACE-2 rs908004 and the mutant allele of the ACE-1 rs4343 were significantly more predominant in severe patients. In contrast, no significant association existed between the TMPRSS2 rs12329760 genotypes or alleles and the disease severity. Conclusion: The results of this study show that the ACE-1 and ACE-2 SNPs can be used as severity predictors for COVID-19 infection since also they have an effect on length of hospitalization.

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Concepts Keywords
Coronavirus ACE1
Egyptian ACE2
Mutant COVID-19
Outpatient genetic polymorphism


Type Source Name
disease MESH COVID-19
pathway KEGG Coronavirus disease
disease MESH infection
drug DRUGBANK Angiotensin II
drug DRUGBANK Serine
disease IDO cell
disease VO protocol
drug DRUGBANK Coenzyme M
disease VO organization
disease MESH pneumonia
disease MESH death
disease MESH hypertension
disease MESH dyslipidemia
drug DRUGBANK Rasagiline
disease MESH inflammation
disease MESH thrombosis
disease MESH lung injury
pathway KEGG Apoptosis
disease MESH viral diseases
drug DRUGBANK (S)-Des-Me-Ampa
disease VO gene
disease VO population
disease MESH Asthma
pathway KEGG Asthma
disease MESH COPD
drug DRUGBANK Methionine
disease MESH complications
disease IDO blood
disease IDO history
drug DRUGBANK Silicon dioxide
disease IDO assay
disease VO volume
drug DRUGBANK Water
drug DRUGBANK Gold
drug DRUGBANK Hydroxychloroquine
drug DRUGBANK Zinc
drug DRUGBANK Ivermectin
drug DRUGBANK Acetylcysteine
drug DRUGBANK Favipiravir
drug DRUGBANK Dexamethasone
drug DRUGBANK Ritonavir
drug DRUGBANK Methylprednisolone
disease MESH Critically Ill
disease VO ANOVA

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