Publication date: Jul 08, 2023
Many studies have shown that botulinum toxin (BoNT) can be an option to treat motor and non-motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and parkinsonian syndromes. The advantages of BoNT compared to oral medications include localized action and low incidence of systemic side effects, which is important in treating neurodegenerative disease. Motor symptoms that can be treated with BoNT include blepharospasm, apraxia of eyelid opening, tremor, cervical dystonia and limb dystonia. Other indications with less evidence include camptocormia, freezing of gait and dyskinesia. Non-motor symptoms that may improve with BoNT include sialorrhea, pain, overreactive bladder, dysphagia and constipation. However, the current evidence for use of BoNT in parkinsonism is mostly based on open-label studies and there are few randomized, controlled trials. BoNT can be a valuable tool to treat certain symptoms of PD and parkinsonian syndromes to improve the patient’s quality of life. However, many of the uses are not supported by high quality studies and further studies are needed to provide further evidence of efficacy, define the optimal injection protocols such as doses and muscle selection.