Effects of an Artificial Intelligence Platform for Behavioral Interventions on Depression and Anxiety Symptoms: Randomized Clinical Trial.

Publication date: Jul 10, 2023

The need for scalable delivery of mental health care services that are efficient and effective is now a major public health priority. Artificial intelligence (AI) tools have the potential to improve behavioral health care services by helping clinicians collect objective data on patients’ progress, streamline their workflow, and automate administrative tasks. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of an AI platform for behavioral health in facilitating better clinical outcomes for patients receiving outpatient therapy. The study was conducted at a community-based clinic in the United States. Participants were 47 adults referred for outpatient, individual cognitive behavioral therapy for a main diagnosis of a depressive or anxiety disorder. The platform provided by Eleos Health was compared to treatment-as-usual (TAU) approach during the first 2 months of therapy. This AI platform summarizes and transcribes the therapy session, provides feedback to therapists on the use of evidence-based practices, and integrates these data with routine standardized questionnaires completed by patients. The information is also used to draft the session’s progress note. Patients were randomized to receive either therapy provided with the support of an AI platform developed by Eleos Health or TAU at the same clinic. Data analysis was carried out based on intention-to-treat approach from December 2022 to January 2023. The primary outcomes included the feasibility and acceptability of the AI platform. Secondary outcomes included changes in depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9) and anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7) scores as well as treatment attendance, satisfaction, and perceived helpfulness. A total of 72 patients were approached, of whom 47 (67%) agreed to participate. Participants were adults (34/47, 72% women and 13/47, 28% men; mean age 30. 64, SD 11. 02 years), 23 randomized to the AI platform group, and 24 to TAU. Participants in the AI group attended, on average, 67% (mean 5. 24, SD 2. 31) more sessions compared to those in TAU (mean 3. 14, SD 1. 99). Depression and anxiety symptoms were reduced by 34% and 29% in the AI platform group versus 20% and 8% for TAU, respectively, with large effect sizes for the therapy delivered with the support of the AI platform. No group difference was found in 2-month treatment satisfaction and perceived helpfulness. Further, therapists using the AI platform submitted their progress notes, on average, 55 hours earlier than therapists in the TAU group (t=-0. 73; P

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Concepts Keywords
December anxiety
Depressive artificial intelligence
Intelligence augmentation
Therapists cognitive-behavioral therapy
Women community-based center
evidence-based practices
health force burnout


Type Source Name
drug DRUGBANK Tropicamide
disease MESH anxiety disorder
disease MESH burnout

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