Recent advances in cholinergic mechanisms as reactions to toxicity, stress, and neuroimmune insults.

Publication date: Jul 10, 2023

This review presents recent studies of the chemical and molecular regulators of acetylcholine (ACh) signaling and the complexity of the small molecule and RNA regulators of those mechanisms that control cholinergic functioning in health and disease. The underlying structural, neurochemical, and transcriptomic concepts, including basic and translational research and clinical studies, shed new light on how these processes inter-change under acute states, age, sex, and COVID-19 infection; all of which modulate ACh-mediated processes and inflammation in women and men and under diverse stresses. The aspect of organophosphorus (OP) compound toxicity is discussed based on the view that despite numerous studies, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is still a vulnerable target in OP poisoning because of a lack of efficient treatment and the limitations of oxime-assisted reactivation of inhibited AChE. The over-arching purpose of this review is thus to discuss mechanisms of cholinergic signaling dysfunction caused by OP pesticides, OP nerve agents, and anti-cholinergic medications; and to highlight new therapeutic strategies to combat both the acute and chronic effects of these chemicals on the cholinergic and neuroimmune systems. Furthermore, OP toxicity was examined in view of cholinesterase inhibition and beyond in order to highlight improved small molecules and RNA therapeutic strategies and assess their predicted pitfalls to reverse the acute toxicity and long-term deleterious effects of OPs.

Concepts Keywords
Acetylcholinesterase acetylcholine
Long inflammation
Neuroimmune microRNA
Pesticides neurotoxicity
Women transfer RNA fragments


Type Source Name
drug DRUGBANK Acetylcholine
disease MESH COVID-19
disease MESH infection
disease MESH inflammation
disease VO LACK
disease VO efficient

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