Publication date: Jul 10, 2023
Sessile forms of bacteria remain as an aggregation on biotic and abiotic surfaces, known as biofilm, that protects them from various environmental stress, like antibiotic and host immune response. The oral cavity is enriched with microbial biofilm, formed on dental surface, gingival plaques, and associated tissue. Several pathogenic viruses enter the oral cavity and form biofilms either on pre-existing biofilms or on cell surfaces. They achieved persistence and the ability to prompt dissemination in the biofilm. Dental biofilms of COVID-19 patients are found to harbor SARS-CoV-2 RNA and may act as a budding reservoir, which also promotes COVID-19 transmission. On the other hand, most of the prokaryotic viruses or bacteriophages essentially kill the host bacteria and thereby destroy the biofilm. Bacteria try to evade from phage attack by concealing in biofilm, whereas the eukaryotic virus often utilize bacterial biofilm to escape host’s immune response and to achieve an easy way of dissemination. The opposite action of viruses as an inducer and eradicator of biofilm has made the oral biofilm a unique ecosystem.