Publication date: Jul 10, 2023
Cholesterol homeostasis is critical for normal brain function. It is tightly controlled by various biological elements. ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) is a membrane transporter that effluxes cholesterol from cells, particularly astrocytes, into the extracellular space. The recent studies pertaining to ABCA1’s role in CNS disorders were included in this study. In this comprehensive literature review, preclinical and human studies showed that ABCA1 has a significant role in the following diseases or disorders: Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, multiple sclerosis, neuropathy, anxiety, depression, psychosis, epilepsy, stroke, and brain ischemia and trauma. ABCA1 via modulating normal and aberrant brain functions such as apoptosis, phagocytosis, BBB leakage, neuroinflammation, amyloid β efflux, myelination, synaptogenesis, neurite outgrowth, and neurotransmission promotes beneficial effects in aforementioned diseases. ABCA1 is a key molecule in the CNS. By boosting its expression or function, some CNS disorders may be resolved. In preclinical studies, liver X receptor agonists have shown promise in treating CNS disorders via ABCA1 and apoE enhancement.