Assessing the risk and costs of COVID-19 in immunocompromised populations in a large United States commercial insurance health plan: the EPOCH-US Study.

Publication date: Jul 11, 2023

To estimate the prevalence of patients with an immunocompromising condition at risk for COVID-19, estimate COVID-19 prevalence rate (PR) and incidence rate (IR) by immunocompromising condition, and describe COVID-19-related healthcare resource utilization (HCRU) and costs. Using the Healthcare Integrated Research Database (HIRD)(R), patients with ≥1 claim for an immunocompromising condition of interest or ≥2 claims for an immunosuppressive (IS) treatment and COVID-19 diagnosis during the infection period (April 1, 2020-March 31, 2022) and had ≥12 months baseline data were included. Cohorts (other than the composite cohort) were not mutually exclusive and were defined by each immunocompromising condition. Analyses were descriptive in nature. Of the 16,873,161 patients in the source population, 2. 7% (n = 458,049) were immunocompromised (IC). The COVID-19 IR for the composite IC cohort during the study period was 101. 3 per 1,000 person-years and the PR was 13. 5%. The highest IR (195. 0 per 1,000 person-years) and PR (20. 1%) was seen in the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) cohort; the lowest IR (68. 3 per 1,000 person-years) and PR (9. 4%) was seen in the hematologic or solid tumor malignancy cohort. Mean costs for hospitalizations associated with first COVID-19 diagnosis were estimated at nearly $1 billion (2021 United States dollars [USD]) for 14,516 IC patients, with a mean cost of $64,029 per patient. Immunocompromised populations appear to be at substantial risk of severe COVID-19 outcomes, leading to increased costs and HCRU. Effective prophylactic options are still needed for these high-risk populations as the COVID-19 landscape evolves.

Concepts Keywords
Immunosuppressive COVID-19
Renal epidemiology
healthcare resource utilization


Type Source Name
disease MESH COVID-19
disease MESH infection
disease VO population
disease MESH end-stage renal disease
disease MESH tumor
disease VO effective
disease MESH Long Covid

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