Depression phenotypes in spinal cord injury and impact on post-injury healthcare utilization and cost: Analysis using a large claim database.

Publication date: Jul 11, 2023

Depression is the most common psychological comorbidity associated with spinal cord injury (SCI) and affects healthcare utilization and costs. This study aimed to use an International Classification of Disease (ICD) and prescription drug-based depression phenotypes to classify people with SCI, and to evaluate the prevalence of those phenotypes, associated risk factors, and healthcare utilization. Retrospective Observational Study. Marketscan Database (2000-2019). Individuals with SCI were classified into six ICD-9/10, and prescription drugs defined phenotypes: Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), Other Depression (OthDep), Antidepressants for Other Psychiatric Conditions (PsychRx), Antidepressants for non-psychiatric condition (NoPsychRx), Other Non-depression Psychiatric conditions only (NonDepPsych), and No Depression (NoDep). Except for the latter, all the other groups were referred to as “depressed phenotypes”. Data were screened for 24 months pre- and 24 months post-injury depression. None. Healthcare utilization and payments. There were 9,291 patients with SCI classified as follows: 16% MDD, 11% OthDep, 13% PsychRx, 13% NonPsychRx, 14% NonDepPsych, 33% NoDep. Compared with the NoDep group, the MDD group was younger (54 vs. 57 years old), predominantly female (55% vs. 42%), with Medicaid coverage (42% vs. 12%), had increased comorbidities (69% vs. 54%), had fewer traumatic injuries (51% vs. 54%) and had higher chronic 12-month pre-SCI opioid use (19% vs. 9%) (all P 

Concepts Keywords
Marketscan Depression
Medicaid Depression phenotype
Psychiatric Healthcare cost
Healthcare utilization
Spinal cord injury


Type Source Name
disease MESH comorbidity
disease MESH Major Depressive Disorder

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