Predicting Outcomes in Long COVID Patients with Spatiotemporal Attention

Publication date: Jul 07, 2023

Long COVID is a general term of post-acute sequelae of COVID-19. Patients with long COVID can endure long-lasting symptoms including fatigue, headache, dyspnea and anosmia, etc. Identifying the cohorts with severe long-term complications in COVID-19 could benefit the treatment planning and resource arrangement. However, due to the heterogeneous phenotype presented in long COVID patients, it is difficult to predict their outcomes from their longitudinal data. In this study, we proposed a spatiotemporal attention mechanism to weigh feature importance jointly from the temporal dimension and feature space. Considering that medical examinations can have interchangeable orders in adjacent time points, we restricted the learning of short-term dependency with a Local-LSTM and the learning of long-term dependency with the joint spatiotemporal attention. We also compared the proposed method with several state-of-the-art methods and a method in clinical practice. The methods are evaluated on a hard-to-acquire clinical dataset of patients with long COVID. Experimental results show the Local-LSTM with joint spatiotemporal attention outperformed related methods in outcome prediction. The proposed method provides a clinical tool for the severity assessment of long COVID.


Concepts Keywords
Biomedical Attention
Glucose Clinical
Neighbors Covid
Pgab003 Dependency
Relapse Importance


Type Source Name
disease MESH Long COVID
disease MESH sequelae
disease MESH COVID-19
disease VO time
drug DRUGBANK Metoclopramide
disease VO USA
disease VO gene
drug DRUGBANK Coenzyme M
disease MESH infection
disease MESH syndromes
disease IDO acute infection
disease VO organization
drug DRUGBANK Trestolone
disease MESH death
disease IDO history
disease VO effective
disease MESH age related macular degeneration
drug DRUGBANK Methyldopa
disease MESH chronic diseases
drug DRUGBANK Sulpiride
disease MESH pneumonia
disease MESH abnormalities
disease MESH fibrosis
pathway REACTOME Translation
drug DRUGBANK Flunarizine
disease VO effectiveness
disease VO laboratory test
drug DRUGBANK Fibrinogen Human
drug DRUGBANK Prothrombin
drug DRUGBANK L-Alanine
drug DRUGBANK Chloride ion
drug DRUGBANK Alkaline Phosphatase
drug DRUGBANK Calcium
drug DRUGBANK Creatinine
drug DRUGBANK Dextrose unspecified form
drug DRUGBANK Potassium
disease MESH hypertension
disease MESH obesity
disease MESH hyperlipidemia
disease MESH diabetes mellitus
disease MESH acute respiratory distress syndrome
disease MESH cystic fibrosis
disease MESH Infectious Diseases
disease MESH cancer
disease IDO intervention
drug DRUGBANK Kale
drug DRUGBANK Methylergometrine
disease MESH Uncertainty

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