Racial and Ethnic Differences in Factors Associated With Delayed or Missed Pediatric Preventive Care in the US Due to the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Publication date: Jul 03, 2023

The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted medical care use. Yet information on how the pandemic has affected pediatric preventive care use in the US is lacking. To examine the prevalence of and risk and protective factors for delayed or missed pediatric preventive care in the US due to the COVID-19 pandemic, further stratified by race and ethnicity to assess associations by groups. This cross-sectional study used data from the 2021 National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH) collected between June 25, 2021, and January 14, 2022. Weighted data from the NSCH survey are representative of the population of noninstitutionalized children aged 0 to 17 years in the US. For this study, race and ethnicity were reported as American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian or Pacific Islander, Hispanic, non-Hispanic Black, non-Hispanic White, or multiracial (≥2 races). Data analysis was performed on February 21, 2023. The Andersen behavioral model of health services use was used to assess predisposing factors, enabling factors, and need factors. The main outcome was delayed or missed pediatric preventive care due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Bivariate and multivariable Poisson regression analyses were performed using multiple imputation with chained equations. Of the 50 892 NSCH respondents, 48. 9% were female and 51. 1% were male; their mean (SD) age was 8. 5 (5. 3) years. With regard to race and ethnicity, 0. 4% were American Indian or Alaska Native, 4. 7% were Asian or Pacific Islander, 13. 3% were Black, 25. 8% were Hispanic, 50. 1% were White, and 5. 8% were multiracial. More than one-fourth of children (27. 6%) delayed or missed preventive care. In multivariable Poisson regression using multiple imputation, Asian or Pacific Islander children (prevalence ratio [PR], 1. 16 [95% CI, 1. 02-1. 32]), Hispanic children (PR, 1. 19 [95% CI, 1. 09-1. 31]), and multiracial children (PR, 1. 23 [95% CI, 1. 11-1. 37]) were more likely to have delayed or missed preventive care compared with non-Hispanic White children. Among non-Hispanic Black children, risk and protective factors included age 6 to 8 years (vs 0-2 years [PR, 1. 90 (95% CI, 1. 23-2. 92)]) and difficulty covering basic needs somewhat or very often (vs never or rarely [PR, 1. 68 (95% CI, 1. 35-2. 09)]). Among multiracial children, risk and protective factors included age 9 to 11 years (vs 0-2 years [PR, 1. 73 (95% CI, 1. 16-2. 57)]), lower household income (

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Concepts Keywords
Alaska Child
Hispanic COVID-19
Pandemic Cross-Sectional Studies
Pediatric Ethnicity
Racial Groups


Type Source Name
disease MESH COVID-19 Pandemic
disease VO population

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