The potential impact of novel tuberculosis vaccine introduction on economic growth in low- and middle-income countries: A modeling study.

Publication date: Jul 01, 2023

Most individuals developing tuberculosis (TB) are working age adults living in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The resulting disability and death impact economic productivity and burden health systems. New TB vaccine products may reduce this burden. In this study, we estimated the impact of introducing novel TB vaccines on gross domestic product (GDP) growth in 105 LMICs. We adapted an existing macroeconomic model to simulate country-level GDP trends between 2020 and 2080, comparing scenarios for introduction of hypothetical infant and adolescent/adult vaccines to a no-new-vaccine counterfactual. We parameterized each scenario using estimates of TB-related mortality, morbidity, and healthcare spending from linked epidemiological and costing models. We assumed vaccines would be introduced between 2028 and 2047 and estimated incremental changes in GDP within each country from introduction to 2080, in 2020 US dollars. We tested the robustness of results to alternative analytic specifications. Both vaccine scenarios produced greater cumulative GDP in the modeled countries over the study period, equivalent to $1. 6 (95% uncertainty interval: $0. 8, 3. 0) trillion for the adolescent/adult vaccine and $0. 2 ($0. 1, 0. 4) trillion for the infant vaccine. These GDP gains were substantially lagged relative to the time of vaccine introduction, particularly for the infant vaccine. GDP gains resulting from vaccine introduction were concentrated in countries with higher current TB incidence and earlier vaccine introduction. Results were sensitive to secular trends in GDP growth but relatively robust to other analytic assumptions. Uncertain projections of GDP could alter these projections and affect the conclusions drawn by this analysis. Under a range of assumptions, introducing novel TB vaccines would increase economic growth in LMICs.

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Concepts Keywords
Healthcare Countries
Macroeconomic Economic
Secular Gdp
Tuberculosis Growth


Type Source Name
disease MESH tuberculosis
pathway KEGG Tuberculosis
disease MESH death
disease MESH morbidity
disease MESH uncertainty
disease MESH Infectious Diseases
pathway REACTOME Reproduction
disease MESH vaccine preventable diseases
drug DRUGBANK BCG vaccine
disease MESH infection
drug DRUGBANK Trestolone
drug DRUGBANK Indoleacetic acid
drug DRUGBANK Aspartame
drug DRUGBANK Adenosine
drug DRUGBANK Rifampicin

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