Effects of training involving patterned sensory enhancement on improving upper-limb movements in patients with Parkinson’s disease: protocol of a randomised controlled trial.

Publication date: Jul 12, 2023

Bradykinesia (ie, slow movements) is one of the most prominent symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and has a negative impact on quality of life. Rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS), a widely used and promising treatment technique, has been shown to effectively improve gait speed in patients with PD. The upper-limb movements, which also suffer from bradykinesia, are essential for daily life and directly impact quality of life. The term, patterned sensory enhancement (PSE) instead of RAS, is used when movement training targets the human body except lower limbs. Up until now, scarce studies have explored effects of training involving PSE on upper-limb movements. The purpose of this study is to investigate effects of movement training involving PSE on upper-limb movement speed and function in patients with PD. A total of 138 patients with PD will be randomly assigned into two groups: the PSE group and the no-PSE group. A 21-day upper-limb training involving PSE (for the PSE group) or without PSE (for the no-PSE group) will be provided to the patients. An assessor will administer the box and block test and the Jebsen hand function test before and after training to assess upper-limb movement speed and function. The one-way analysis of covariance will be performed. This randomised controlled trial will provide evidence supporting effectiveness of upper-limb movement training involving PSE on reducing severity of bradykinesia in patients with PD. Ethical approval has been obtained from the Institutional Review Board of the Hong Kong Polytechnic University with the reference number HSEARS20221027005. Informed consent forms will be gathered from all patients before their participation. Study results will be disseminated through conferences and peer-reviewed academic journals. NCT05637593.

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Concepts Keywords
Hsears20221027005 Acoustic stimulation
Journals Arm
Parkinson Bradykinesia
Randomised Movement
Training Parkinson’s disease


Type Source Name
drug DRUGBANK Rasagiline
disease MESH gait
drug DRUGBANK Dopamine
drug DRUGBANK Levodopa
drug DRUGBANK Coenzyme M
disease MESH Movement Disorders
drug DRUGBANK Aspartame
drug DRUGBANK Ilex paraguariensis leaf
disease MESH muscle fatigue
disease MESH complications
disease MESH parkinson disease
pathway KEGG Parkinson disease
disease MESH basal ganglia disorder
disease MESH Parkinsonism
disease MESH cognitive impairment
disease MESH stroke
disease MESH cerebral palsy
drug DRUGBANK Etodolac

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