Publication date: Jul 10, 2023
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has significantly increased the demand of disinfectant use. Chloroxylenol (para-chloro-meta-xylenol, PCMX) as the major antimicrobial ingredient of disinfectant has been widely detected in water environments, with identified toxicity and potential risk. The assessment of PCMX in domestic wastewater of Macau Special Administrative Region (SAR) showed a positive correlation between PCMX concentration and population density. An indigenous PCMX degrader, identified as Rhodococcus sp. GG1, was isolated and found capable of completely degrading PCMX (50 mg L) within 36 h. The growth kinetics followed Haldane’s inhibition model, with maximum specific growth rate, half-saturation constant, and inhibition constant of 0. 38 h, 7. 64 mg L, and 68. 08 mg L, respectively. The degradation performance was enhanced by optimizing culture conditions, while the presence of additional carbon source stimulated strain GG1 to alleviate inhibition from high concentrations of PCMX. In addition, strain GG1 showed good environmental adaptability, degrading PCMX efficiently in different environmental aqueous matrices. A potential degradation pathway was identified, with 2,6-dimethylhydroquinone as a major intermediate metabolite. Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) was found to play a key role in dechlorinating PCMX via hydroxylation and also catalyzed the hydroxylated dechlorination of other halo-phenolic contaminants through co-metabolism. This study characterizes an aerobic bacterial pure culture capable of degrading PCMX metabolically, which could be promising in effective bioremediation of PCMX-contaminated sites and in treatment of PCMX-containing waste streams.
|disease||MESH||coronavirus disease 2019|