Significance of Anti-COVID-IgA antibody response in COVID-19 breakthrough infection in vaccinated patients – a single-centered study from Pakistan.

Publication date: Jul 12, 2023

An increasing number of breakthrough-COVID-19-vaccinated individuals are being reported across the world. Humoral immunity has a crucial role in combating infection. In this study, we aimed to assess the importance of anti-COVID-S1-IgA and anti-COVID-NP-IgA in confirmed COVID-19 after vaccination (breakthrough infection group). Blood samples were collected from the breakthrough infection group within one week of breakthrough infections (n = 34). A second sample was also collected after 4 to 8 weeks (n = 27). Blood samples of healthy individuals (n = 29) were collected 4-8 weeks after the completion of vaccination. Anti-COVID-S1-IgA and anti-COVID-NP-IgA were detected by ELISA. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS version 24. In this study, we found a higher positivity rate for anti-COVID-S1-IgA in the breakthrough infection group (70% vs. 28% in healthy individuals). Anti-COVID-NP-IgA was not found in the control group (11% in the breakthrough infection group vs. 0 in healthy individuals). In the breakthrough-infected group, the positivity rate of anti-COVID-NP-IgA decreased significantly (median titers 16. 9 IU/ml decreased to 4. 2 IU/ml) p = 0. 001), while anti-COVID-S1-IgA increased over a period of 4-8 weeks (9. 35-16. 35 IU/ml). Importantly, IgA response to both COVID-19 NP and S1 antigens was not found in 13 patients at initial testing. The findings of this study show that serum IgA may have a role both in breakthrough infections and also in the prevention of severe infection. Sluggish anti-COVID-19-IgA antibody response may be responsible for the occurrence of COVID-19 infection in breakthrough infection. On the other hand, more sustained anti-COVID-19-S1-IgA over a longer period of time may have a role in preventing these patients from severe infections and hospitalization. However, a study on a larger sample size including patients with severe disease after vaccination is required to prove this hypothesis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the importance of serum IgA in breakthrough-infected patients from our region.

Concepts Keywords
Elisa Anti-COVID-19-IgA antibodies
Ibm Anti-COVID-19-NP-IgA
Pakistan Breakthrough infection
Severe COVID-19 vaccination
Vaccinated

Semantics

Type Source Name
disease MESH COVID-19 breakthrough infection
disease VO vaccinated
disease MESH COVID-19
disease MESH infection
disease VO vaccination
disease MESH breakthrough infection
disease IDO blood
disease VO time

Original Article

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