The cost of mass gatherings during a pandemic.

Publication date: Sep 01, 2023

In June 2020, the U. S., unlike other regions of the world, faced a surge in cases of COVID-19. Immediately prior to this wave of cases, the largest mass protests in U. S. history took place. We show that when holding other factors constant, COVID-19 cases increased most in places where more demonstrations occurred. We exploit variation in rainfall during the protest period as an exogenous source of variation in attendance. We find that good weather coincides with both more people protesting and more subsequent COVID-19 cases and deaths. Mass gatherings during a pandemic thus lead to more contraction and fatalities of COVID-19, and we quantify these effects.

Concepts Keywords
Covid BLM protests
June COVID-19
Protests Mass gathering
Rainfall Rainfall


Type Source Name
disease MESH COVID-19
disease IDO history
drug DRUGBANK Bleomycin

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