Publication date: Jul 13, 2023
This retrospective multicenter cohort study examined the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and risk factors for poor outcomes associated with human metapneumovirus (hMPV) infections in recipients of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT). We included 428 allo-HCT recipients who developed 438 hMPV infection episodes between January 2012 and January 2019. Most recipients were adults (93%). hMPV infections were diagnosed at a median of 373 days after allo-HCT. The infections were categorized as upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) or lower respiratory tract disease (LRTD), with 60% and 40% of cases, respectively. Patients with hMPV LRTD experienced the infection earlier in the transplant course and had higher rates of lymphopenia, neutropenia, corticosteroid use, and ribavirin therapy. Multivariate analysis identified lymphopenia and corticosteroid use (>30 mg/d) as independent risk factors for LRTD occurrence. The overall mortality at day 30 after hMPV detection was 2% for URTD, 12% for possible LRTD, and 21% for proven LRTD. Lymphopenia was the only independent risk factor associated with day 30 mortality in LRTD cases. These findings highlight the significance of lymphopenia and corticosteroid use in the development and severity of hMPV infections after allo-HCT, with lymphopenia being a predictor of higher mortality in LRTD cases.
|30mg||community-acquired respiratory virus|
|Retrospective||immunodeficiency score index|
|multiplex PCR assay|